Theories of economic development have focused exclusively on the improvement of production forces and have disregarded questions of social and ecological relations of production. Among geographers, the exclusive focus on production forces can be seen in their work on the spatial diffusion of technological innovation. The costly errors of Green Revolution agriculture in the Third World illustrate the hazards of that approach. A full assessment of the role of technology in development requires a perspective of ecopolitical economy. This viewpoint is explained using the Green Revolution as an example.