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The roles of JAK/STAT signaling in Drosophila immune responses


* Hervé Agaisse
Department of Genetics
Harvard Medical School
77 Avenue Louis Pasteur
Boston, MA 02115, USA


Summary:  Innate immune responses are mediated by the activation of various signaling processes. Here, we describe our current knowledge on Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling in the Drosophila immune response. First, we briefly introduce the main effectors involved in the humoral and cellular responses, such as anti-bacterial peptides and hemocytes. Second, we describe the canonical JAK/STAT-signaling pathway, as established from extensive studies in mammalian systems, and we introduce the Drosophila components of the JAK/STAT pathway, as discovered from studies on embryonic development. Third, we describe the various roles of JAK/STAT signaling in both humoral and cellular responses. We present the JAK/STAT-dependent humoral factors, such as the thioester-containing proteins and the Tot peptides, produced by the fat body in response to septic injury. We also discuss the possible involvement of the JAK/STAT pathway in cellular responses, including hemocyte proliferation and differentiation. Finally, we present how cytokines, such as Upd3, might contribute to the integration of the immune responses at the organism level by orchestrating the response of various immune cells and organs, such as fat body, hemocytes, and lymph glands.