Summary:  In this review, we discuss recent data from our laboratory that address two aspects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted antigen processing. First, we consider the nature of the peptide-loading complex, which is the assembly of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into which newly synthesized MHC class I-β2 microglobulin (β2m) heterodimers are incorporated, and the mechanisms involved in MHC class I assembly and peptide loading that are facilitated by the peptide-loading complex. Second, we discuss mechanisms of cross-presentation, the phenomenon whereby extracellular and luminal protein antigens can be processed by antigen-presenting cells, particularly dendritic cells, and presented by MHC class I molecules to CD8+ T cells. The focus of the discussion is mainly on the human MHC class I system.