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Summary:  Osteoclasts are primary cells for physiological and pathological bone resorption, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is critically involved in the differentiation, activation, and survival of these cells. Recently, therapeutics for pathological bone destruction targeting RANKL pathways has attracted a great deal of attention. Herein, we review the recent advances in the research on osteoclast biology and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of anti-RANKL therapies.