Circuitry of nuclear factor κB signaling
Article first published online: 28 MAR 2006
Volume 210, Issue 1, pages 171–186, April 2006
How to Cite
Hoffmann, A. and Baltimore, D. (2006), Circuitry of nuclear factor κB signaling. Immunological Reviews, 210: 171–186. doi: 10.1111/j.0105-2896.2006.00375.x
- Issue published online: 28 MAR 2006
- Article first published online: 28 MAR 2006
Summary: Over the past few years, the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and the proteins that regulate it have emerged as a signaling system of pre-eminent importance in human physiology and in an increasing number of pathologies. While NF-κB is present in all differentiated cell types, its discovery and early characterization were rooted in understanding B-cell biology. Significant research efforts over two decades have yielded a large body of literature devoted to understanding NF-κB's functioning in the immune system. NF-κB has been found to play roles in many different compartments of the immune system during differentiation of immune cells and development of lymphoid organs and during immune activation. NF-κB is the nuclear effector of signaling pathways emanating from many receptors, including those of the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor and Toll-like receptor superfamilies. With this review, we hope to provide historical context and summarize the diverse physiological functions of NF-κB in the immune system before focusing on recent advances in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate cell type-specific and stimulus-specific functions of this pleiotropic signaling system. Understanding the genetic regulatory circuitry of NF-κB functionalities involves system-wide measurements, biophysical studies, and computational modeling.