• 1
    Druce HM. Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. In: Allergy Principles, Practice. 5th edn, (Ed by MiddletonE Jr , ReedCE, EllisEf, et al.). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book Inc, 1999, 10051016.
  • 2
    Settipane RA, Lieberman P. Update on nonallergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;86: 494507.
  • 3
    Lieberman P. Treatment update: nonallergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Proc 2001;22: 199202.
  • 4
    Filiaci F, Zambetti G, Ciofalo A, Luce M, Masieri S, Lovecchio A. Local treatment of aspecific nasal hyperreactivity with capsaicin. Allergol Immunopathol 1994;22: 264268.
  • 5
    Blom HM, Van Rijswijk JB, Garrelds IM, Mulder PGH, Timmermans T, Gerth van Wijk R. Intranasal capsaicin is efficacious in non-allergic, non-infectious perennial rhinitis. A placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27: 796801.
  • 6
    Scadding GK. Clinical assessment of antihistamines in rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29: 7781.
  • 7
    McNeely W, Wiseman LR. Intranasal azelastine: a review of its efficacy in the management of allergic rhinitis. Drugs 1998;56: 91114.
  • 8
    Zander KJ. Zur Lebensqualität Allergischer Rhinitiker – Ein Vergleich Topischer und Systemischer Therapie. In: Topische Therapie der allergischen Rhinitis. (Ed by MösgesR, et al.) Zülpich: Biermann, 1993, 130137.
  • 9
    Banov CH, Lieberman P, for the Vasomotor Rhinitis Study Groups. Efficacy of azelastine nasal spray in the treatment of vasomotor (perennial nonallergic) rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2001;86: 2835.
  • 10
    Gehanno P, Deschamps E, Garay E, Baehre M, Garay RP. Vasomotor rhinitis: clinical efficacy of azelastine nasal spray in comparison with placebo. ORL 2001;63: 7681.
  • 11
    Pernow B. Substance P. Pharmacol Rev 1983;35: 85141.
  • 12
    Barnes PJ. Airway neuropeptides. In: Asthma and Rhinitis. 2nd edn, (Ed by WWBusse, STHolgate). Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2000, 891908.
  • 13
    Okamoto Y, Shirotori K, Kodo K et al. Cytokine expression after topical administration of Substance P to human nasal mucosa. J Immunol 1995;151: 43914398.
  • 14
    Shinoda M, Watanabe N, Suko T, Mogi G, Takeyama M. Effects of anti-allergic drugs on Substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal protein (VIP) in nasal secretions. Am J Rhinol 1997;11: 237241.
  • 15
    Nieber K, Baumgarten C, Rathsack R, et al. Effect of azelastine on Substance P content in bronchoalveolar and nasal lavage fluids of patients with allergic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy1993;23: 6971.
  • 16
    Togias AG, Proud D, Lichtenstein LM, et al. The osmolality of nasal secretions increases when inflammatory mediators are released in response to inhalation of cold, dry air. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988;137: 625629.
  • 17
    Proud D, Bailey GS, Naclerio RM, et al. Tryptase and histamine as markers to evaluate mast cell activation during the responses to nasal challenge with allergen, cold, dry air, and hyperosmolar solutions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1992;89: 10981110.
  • 18
    Togias AG, Naclerio RM, Proud D, et al. Mediator release during nasal provocation. A model to investigate the pathophysiology of rhinitis. Am J Med 1985;79: 2633.
  • 19
    Togias AG, Naclerio RM, Proud D et al. Nasal challenge with cold, dry air results in release of inflammatory mediators. Possible mast cell involvement. J Clin Invest 1985;76: 13751381.
  • 20
    Togias AG, Proud D, Lichtenstein LM, Naclerio RM. Hot, dry air (HAD) is a more potent stimulus than cold, dry air (CDA) for causing rhinitis and for increasing the osmolality of nasal secretions. Allergy Clin Immunol News Supplement 1991;1: 114.
  • 21
    Chand N, Pillar J, Nolan K. et al. Inhibition of allergic and non-allergic leukotriene C4 formation and histamine secretion by azelastine: Implication for its mechanism of action. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1989;90: 6770.
  • 22
    Chand N. Effect of newer azelastine backups on allergic histamine secretion from peritoneal rat mast cells. Carter Wallace Study Report, PH-90–19, Asta Medica AG Report A-05610/6309, 1990.
  • 23
    Hide I, Toriu N, Nuibe T, et al. Suppression of TNF-alpha secretion by azelastine in a rat mast (RBL-2H3) cell line: evidence for differential regulation of TNF-alpha release, transcription, and degranulation. J Immunol 1997;159: 29322940.
  • 24
    Matsuo S, Takayama S. Influence of the anti-allergic agent, azelastine, on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion from cultured mouse mast cells. In Vivo 1998;12: 481484.
  • 25
    Shichijo M, Inagaki N, Nakai N, et al. The effects of anti-asthma drugs on mediator release from cultured human mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28: 12281236.
  • 26
    Lippert U, Moller A, Welker P, Artuc M, Henz BM. Inhibition of cytokine secretion from human leukemic mast cells and basophils by H1- and H2-receptor antagonists. Exp Dermatol 2000;9: 118124.
  • 27
    Jacobi HH, Skov PS, Poulsen LK, Malling HJ, Mygind N. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge. effect of 1 week of pretreatment with intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103: 768772.
  • 28
    Church MK. Non H1-receptor effects of antihistamines. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29: 3948.
  • 29
    Walsh GM, Annunziato L, Frossard N, et al. New insights into the second generation antihistamines. Drugs 2001;61: 207236.
  • 30
    Katayama S, Tsunoda H, Sakum Y, Kai H, Katayama TK. Effect of azelastine on the release and action of leukotrienes C4 and D4. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1987;83: 284289.
  • 31
    Acterracth-Tuckermann U, Simmet T, Luck W, Szelenyi I, Peskar BA. Inhibition of cysteinyl-leukotriene production by azelastine and its biological relevance. Agents Actions 1988;24: 217223.
  • 32
    Smit MJ, Hoffmann M, Timmerman H, Leurs R. Molecular properties and signalling pathways of the histamine H1-receptor. Clin Exp Allergy 1999;29: 1928.
  • 33
    Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB. Therapeutic potential of inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in the treatment of inflammation and cancer. J Clin Invest 2001;107: 135142.
  • 34
    Yoneda K, Yamamoto T, Ueta E, Osaki T. Suppression by azelastine hydrochloride of NFκB activation involved in generation of cytokines and nitric oxide. Jpn J Pharmacol 1997;73: 145153.
  • 35
    Nakata Y, Hide I. Calcium signalling and protein kinase C for TNF-alpha secretion in a rat mast cell line. Life Sci 1998;62: 16531657.
  • 36
    Ciprandi G, Pronzato C, Passalacqua G, et al. Topical azelastine reduces eosinophil activation and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on nasal epithelial cells: an antiallergic activity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98: 10881096.
  • 37
    Ciprandi G, Ricca V, Passalacqua G, et al. Seasonal rhinitis and azelastine: long- or short-term treatment? J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99: 301307.