The immunoepidemiology of human hookworm infection


R. J. Quinnell, School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK (e-mail:


Advances in hookworm immunoepidemiology are reviewed. Recent studies demonstrate a mixed Th1/Th2 response in human hookworm infection, with immunosuppression of specific and nonspecific IFN-γ responses. There is increasing evidence for protective immunity in human hookworm infection, including anti-larval IL-5- and IgE-dependent mechanisms, and for immunological interactions between hookworm infection and other diseases.