Cardiometabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease: What Is the Link?
Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007
Journal of the CardioMetabolic Syndrome
Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 58–65, Winter 2006
How to Cite
Sarafidis, P. A., Whaley-Connell, A., Sowers, J. R. and Bakris, G. L. (2006), Cardiometabolic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease: What Is the Link?. Journal of the CardioMetabolic Syndrome, 1: 58–65. doi: 10.1111/j.0197-3118.2006.05470.x
- Issue online: 7 FEB 2007
- Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2007
- Manuscript received January 6, 2006; revised January 24, 2006; accepted January 25, 2006
The term metabolic syndrome or cardiometabolic syndrome describes the clustering of several cardiovascular and renal risk factors, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, central obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Over the past 15 years, several studies have examined the association between the metabolic/cardiometabolic syndrome or its central component, insulin resistance, with the presence of elevated urine albumin excretion. Intrarenal changes associated with the cardiometabolic syndrome result in elevated glomerular filtration rate, impaired pressure natriuresis, endothelial dysfunction related to changes in nitric oxide and, hence, impaired renal autoregulation and enhanced chronic inflammation. The aforementioned changes that occur in the cardiometabolic syndrome all contribute to the development of renal injury. While this review focuses on the epidemiology and mechanisms associated with vascular/renal injury, it must be remembered that prevention and treatment of kidney disease require a multifactorial approach. Weight loss through diet and exercise can reverse many of these pathophysiologic adaptations. Pharmacologic intervention should be aimed at achieving guideline goals and include insulin sensitizers to aid in tight glycemic control, lipid control, blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for blood pressure reduction, and anti-inflammatory therapies.