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Keywords:

  • Anopheles gambiae;
  • habitat;
  • highland;
  • larvae;
  • malaria;
  • mosquito;
  • Kenya

Abstract.  Anopheline larval habitats associated with a swamp, were examined in a highland area (1910 m elevation) of western Kenya. A significant association was found between occurrence of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae and two factors, habitat size and vegetation type. Over 80% of An. gambiae s.s. larvae were found in small isolated pools, characterized by short plants, occurring in both swamp margins and roadside ditches. However, Anopheles gambiae s.s. was not found in habitats marked by papyrus and floating plants. The larval habitat of An. gambiae s.s. was characterized by warmer daytime temperatures of water, which were significantly affected by habitat size and plant size. The density of indoor resting An. gambiae s.s. was 0.22 per house and negatively associated with distance from the swamp. These results indicate that the practice of swamp cultivation, in populated areas of the African highlands, increases availability and enhances habitat conditions for the malaria vector.