Over the year of the experiment, I. myosuroides, D. scoparium and F. tamarisci shoots grew between 1 and 4 mm, depending on species and transplant type (Fig. 1). Tree, and height and aspect of the clump, had no effect on growth and were omitted from the final analysis. However, clump was included as a random variable within the analysis, as there was variation in the growth of shoots depending on the bryophyte clump in which it grew. For bryophytes that had received no change in N input, there was no significant difference in growth between those that had been transplanted and those that had not (comparison of NT and T0 transplant types). Analysis of data from both source sites combined showed that host site (F1,590 = 11·03, P = 0·05) and species (F2,590 = 11·44, P < 0·0001) had a significant effect on growth, with those bryophytes hosted at Borrowdale growing significantly less than those at Ariundle. Transplant type (NT, T0, TD, TI) and source site had no significant effect on growth. The data were then analysed separately by source site. Bryophytes sourced from Ariundle grew less when hosted at Borrowdale (TI), than at Ariundle (T0 or NT) (Fig. 1). Species (F2,369 = 4·42, P = 0·05) and host site (F1,369 = 13·18, P = 0·001) had a significant effect on growth, but transplantation type did not. Only species had a significant effect on the growth of samples sourced from Borrowdale (F1,225 = 12·21, P = 0·001). However, F. tamarisci and I. myosuroides sourced from Borrowdale showed different growth patterns: I. myosuroides had similar growth (2–2·5 mm) irrespective of host site, while F. tamarisci grew significantly more when hosted at Ariundle (TD) than when hosted at Borrowdale (NT or T0) (F1,102 = 5·1, P = 0·05). Transplant type, host site and source site had no significant effect on weight per mm shoot of F. tamarisci, I. myosuroides and D. scoparium, or on the size (length, width) of U. crispa clumps.