• Clonal variation;
  • cyclic parthenogenesis;
  • delayed mixis;
  • mixis induction


  • 1
    In monogonont rotifers parthenogenetic reproduction allows population growth, and mictic (sexual) reproduction leads to the production of diapausing eggs. When amictic females are exposed to a mixis stimulus, they produce mictic daughters, whose eggs develop into males or, if fertilized, into diapausing eggs. Experiments showed that mictic offspring production is initiated by crowding in females of Brachionus angularis Gosse 1851, Epiphanes senta (O.F. Müller 1773) and Rhinoglena frontalis Ehrenberg 1853, just as it is in Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 and B. plicatilis Müller 1786.
  • 2
    In B. calyciflorus, B. angularis, E. senta and R. frontalis, the propensity of amictic females to respond to crowding by producing mictic female offspring is low in the stem female hatching from a diapausing egg, but then increases after some generations. In many cases, only few mictic offspring are produced by crowded females of the second to the fifth generation, but the maximal response occurs only in later generations. Delayed sexual reproduction in early generations from the resting egg may be advantageous, because it first favours rapid population growth and later on maximizes resting egg production. However, it may be disadvantageous, if unpredictable environmental variation causes a population decline when sexual reproduction is still suppressed.
  • 3
    The extent to which sexual reproduction is delayed varies among and within species. When strains from populations in temporary and permanent habitats were compared, sexual reproduction was significantly delayed in strains from temporary habitats in all species, whereas in B. calyciflorus and R. frontalis mixis was not significantly delayed in strains from permanent habitats. In E. senta mixis was significantly delayed in clones from both habitat types.
  • 4
    Within all strains there was significant variation among clones in the propensity to produce mictic offspring, the extent to which sexual reproduction was delayed in the first generations after the stem female hatched, or both.