SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Kozarek RA. Review article: immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1993;7: 11723.
  • 2
    Löfberg R, Danielsson Å, Suhr O et al. Oral budesonide versus prednisolone in patients with active extensive and left-sided ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 1996;110: 17138.
  • 3
    Lichtiger S, Present DH, Kornbluth A et al. Cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy. N Engl J Med 1994;330: 18415.
  • 4
    Boismenu R, Chen Y. Insights from mouse models of colitis. J Leukoc Biol 2000;67: 26778.
  • 5
    Lundqvist C, Baranov V, Hammarström S, Athlin L, Hammarström M-L. Intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Evidence for regional specialization and extrathymic T cell maturation in the human gut epithelium. Int Immunol 1995;7: 147387.
  • 6
    Camerini V, Panwala C, Kronenberg M. Regional specialization of the mucosal immune system: intraepithelial lmphocytes of the large intestine have a different phenotype and function than those of the small intestine. J Immunol 1993;151: 176575.
  • 7
    Hayday A, Theodoridis E, Ramsburg E, Shires J. Intraepithelial lymphocytes: exploring the third way in immunology. Nat Immunol 2001;2: 9971003.
  • 8
    Lundqvist C, Melgar S, Yeung MMW, Hammarström S, Hammarström M-L. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in human gut have lytic potential and a cytokine profile that suggest T helper 1 and cytotoxic functions. J Immunol 1996;157: 192634.
  • 9
    Forsberg G, Hernell O, Melgar S, Israelsson A, Hammarström S, Hammarström M-L. Paradoxical coexpression of proinflammatory and down-regulatory cytokines in intestinal T cells in childhood celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2002;123: 66778.
  • 10
    Melgar S, Yeung MM-W, Bas A et al. Over expression of interleukin 10 in mucosal T cells of patients with active ulcerative colitis. Clin Exp Immunol 2003;143: 12737.
  • 11
    Olaussen RW, Johansen FE, Lundin KE, Jahnsen J, Brandtzaeg P, Farstad IN. Interferon-γ-secreting T cells localize to the epithelium in coeliac disease. Scand J Immunol 2002;56: 65264.
  • 12
    Melgar S, Bas A, Hammarström S, Hammarström M-L. Human small intestinal mucosa harbours a small population of cytolytically active CD8+αβ T cells. Immunology 2002;106: 47685.
  • 13
    Ciccocioppo R, Di Sabatino A, Parroni R et al. Cytolytic mechanisms of intraepithelial lymphocytes in celiac disease (CoD). Clin Exp Immunol 2000;120: 23540.
  • 14
    Shresta S, Pham CTN, Thomas DA, Graubert TA, Ley TJ. How do cytotoxic lymphocytes kill their targets? Curr Opin Immunol 1998;10: 5817.
  • 15
    Guy-Grand D, Malassis-Seris M, Briottet C, Vassalli P. Cytotoxic differentiation of mouse gut thymodependent and independent intraepithelial T lymphocytes is induced locally. Correlation between functional assays, presence of perforin and granzyme transcripts, and cytoplasmic granules. J Exp Med 1991;173: 154952.
  • 16
    Sydora BC, Mixter PF, Holcombe HR et al. Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes are activated and cytolytic but do not proliferate as well as other T cells in response to mitogenic signals. J Immunol 1993;150: 217991.
  • 17
    Yeung MMW, Melgar S, Baranov V et al. Characterisation of mucosal lymphoid aggregates in ulcerative colitis: immune cell phenotype and TcRγδ expression. Gut 2000;47: 21527.
  • 18
    McVay LD, Li B, Biancaniello R et al. Changes in human mucosal γδ T cell repertoire and function associated with the disease process in inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Med 1997;3: 183203.
  • 19
    MacDonald TT, Monteleone G, Pender SLF. Recent developments in the immunology of inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Immunol 2000;51: 29.
  • 20
    Targan SR, Hanauer SB, Van Deventer SJH et al. A short-term study of chimeric monoclonal antibody cA2 to tumor necrosis factor-α for Crohn's disease. New Engl J Med 1997;337: 102935.
  • 21
    Simpson SJ, Mizogichi E, Allen D, Bhan AK, Terhorst C. Evidence that CD4+, but not CD8+ T cells are responsible for murine interleukin-2-deficient colitis. Eur J Immunol 1995;25: 261825.
  • 22
    Simpson SJ, De Jong YP, Shah SA et al. Consequences of Fas-Ligand and perforin expression by colon T cells in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 1998;115: 84955.
  • 23
    Kawaguchi-Miyashita M, Shimada S, Kurosu H et al. An accessory role of TCRγδ+ cells in the exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in TCRα mutant mice. Eur J Immunol 2001;31: 9808.
  • 24
    Lundqvist C, Hammarström M-L, Athlin L, Hammarström S. Isolation of functionally active intraepithelial lymphocytes and enterocytes from human small and large intestine. J Immunol Methods 1992;152: 25363.
  • 25
    Pross HF, Baines MG, Rubin P, Shragge P, Patterson MS. Spontaneous human lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells. IX. The quantification of natural killer cell activity. J Clin Immunol 1981;1: 5163.
  • 26
    Weibel ER, Kistler GS, Scherle WF. Practical sterological methods for morphometric cytology. J Cell Biol 1966;30: 2338.
  • 27
    Müller S, Lory J, Corazza N et al. Activated CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic cells are present in increased numbers in the intestinal mucosa from patients with active inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Pathol 1998;152: 2618.
  • 28
    Mariani P, Bachetoni A, D'Alessandro M, Lomanto D, Mazzocchi P, Speranza V. Effector Th-1 cells with cytotoxic function in the intestinal lamina propria of patients with Crohn's disease. Dig Dis Sci 2000;45: 202935.
  • 29
    Nüssler NC, Stange B, Hoffman RA, Schraut WH, Bauer AJ, Neuhaus P. Enhanced cytolytic activity of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in patients with Crohn's disease. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2000;385: 21824.
  • 30
    Groh V, Steinle A, Bauer S, Spies T. Recognition of stress-induced MHC molecules by intestinal epithelial γδ T cells. Science 1998;279: 173740.
  • 31
    Maeurer MJ, Martin D, Walter W et al. Human intestinal Vδ1+ T lymphocytes recognize tumor cells of epithelial origin. J Exp Med 1996;183: 168196.
  • 32
    Roberts AL, Lee L, Schwarz E et al. Cutting edge: NKG2D receptors induced by IL-15 costimulate CD28-negative effector CTL in the tissue microenvironment. J Immunol 2001;167: 552730.
  • 33
    Girardi M, Oppenheim DE, Steele CR et al. Regulation of cutaneous malignancy by γδ T cells. Science 2001;294: 6059.
  • 34
    Jabri B, De Serre NP, Cellier C et al. Selective expansion of intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing the HLA-E-specific natural killer receptor CD94 in celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2000;118: 86779.
  • 35
    Guy-Grand D, Cuénod-Jabri B, Malassis-Seris M, Seltz F, Vasalli P. Complexity of the mouse gut T cell immune system: identification of two distinct natural killer T cell intraepithelial lineages. Eur J Immunol 1996;26: 224856.
  • 36
    Bannai M, Kawamura T, Naito T et al. Abundance of unconventional CD8+ natural killer T cells in the large intestine. Eur J Immunol 2001;31: 33619.
  • 37
    Cerf-Bensussan N, Guy-Grand D, Griselli C. Intraepithelial lymphocytes of human gut: isolation, characterisation and study of natural killer activity. Gut 1985;26: 818.
  • 38
    Léon F, Roldán E, Sanchez L, Camarero C, Bootello A, Roy G. Human small-intestinal epithelium contains functional natural killer lymphocytes. Gastroenterology 2003;125: 34556.
  • 39
    Ueyama H, Kiyohara T, Sawada N et al. High Fas ligand expression on lymphocytes in lesions of ulcerative colitis. Gut 1998;43: 4855.
  • 40
    Suda T, Hashimoto H, Tanaka M, Ochi T, Nagata S. Membrane Fas ligand kills human peripheral blood T lymphocytes, and soluble Fas ligand blocks the killing. J Exp Med 1997;186: 204550.
  • 41
    Ottonello L, Tortolina G, Amelotti M, Dallegri F. Soluble Fas ligand is chemotactic for human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Immunol 1999;162: 36016.
  • 42
    Bu P, Keshavarzian A, Stone DD et al. Apoptosis: one of the mechanisms that maintains unresponsiveness of the intestinal mucosal immune system. J Immunol 2001;166: 6399403.
  • 43
    Taunk J, Roberts AI, Ebert EC. Spontaneous cytotoxicity of human intraepithelial lymphocytes against epithelial cell tumors. Gastroenterology 1992;102: 6975.