Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict smoking group membership in a college-age population. Design: A nonexperimental cross-sectional design was used to examine factors that distinguished among four groups: never established (n = 591), former (n = 41), nondaily (n = 80), and daily (n = 76) cigarette smokers. Sample: A pencil and paper questionnaire was returned by 788 randomly selected college students, 18–24 years of age. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups on their mothers', fathers', siblings', and peers' smoking behaviors and attitudes toward smoking. The nondaily and daily smoking groups reported a greater number of risk behaviors than the never established and former smoking groups. The two groups of current smokers also were more likely to report an increased level of depressive symptoms compared with the nonsmoking groups. The number of high school and college friends who smoke and self-reported high-risk alcohol and drug behaviors predicted smoking group membership in a polytomous logistic regression. Conclusions: Strategies to alter the social environment and decrease the exposure of nonsmoking students to others who model smoking behaviors may help decrease smoking initiation and prevent relapse on college campuses.