• 1
    Abrams J R, Kelley S L, Hayes E et al. Blockade of T lymphocyte costimulation with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) reverses the cellular pathology of psoriatic plaques, including the activation of keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. J Exp Med 2000: 192: 681694.
  • 2
    Abrams J R, Lebwohl M G, Guzzo C A et al. CTLA41g mediated blockade of T-cell costimulation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. J Clin Invest 1999: 103: 12431252.
  • 3
    Asadullah K, Docke W D, Ebeling M et al. Interleukin 10 treatment of psoriasis: clinical results of a phase 2 trial. Arch Dermatol 1999: 135: 187192.
  • 4
    Asadullah K, Volk H D, Sterry W. Novel immunotherapies for psoriasis. Trends Immunol 2002: 23: 4753.
  • 5
    Baker B S, Fry L. The immunology of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 1992: 126: 19.
  • 6
    Haranaka K, Carswell E A, Williamson B D, Prendergast J S, Satomi N, Old L J. Purification, characterization, and antitumor activity of nonrecombinant mouse tumor necrosis factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986: 83: 39493953.
  • 7
    Aggarwal B B, Aiyer R A, Pennica D, Gray P W, Groeddel D V. Human tumour necrosis factor: structure and receptor interactions. Ciba Found Symp 1987: 131: 3951.
  • 8
    Pennica D, Hayflick J S, Bringman T S, Palladino M A, Goeddel D V. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the cDNA for murine tumor necrosis factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985: 82: 60606064.
  • 9
    Beutler B. Tumor Necrosis Factors. The Molecules and Their Emerging Role in Medicine. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1992.
  • 10
    Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu S D. A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane protein: ramifications for the complex physiology of TNF. immune responses in MHC class II-deficient mice. Cell 1988: 53: 4553.
  • 11
    Moss M L, Jin S L C, Milla M E et al. Cloning of a disintegrin metalloproteinase that processes precursor tumor-necrosis factor-alpha. Nature 1997: 385: 733736.
  • 12
    Peschon J J, Slack J L, Reddy P et al. An essential role for ectodomain shedding in mammalian development. Science 1998: 282: 12811284.
  • 13
    Bazzoni F, Beutler B. The tumor necrosis factor ligand and receptor families. N Engl J Med 1996: 334: 17171725.
  • 14
    Beutler B, Brown T. Polymorphism of the mouse TNF-alpha locus: sequence studies of the 3′-untranslated region and first intron. Gene 1993: 129: 279283.
  • 15
    Han J, Brown T, Beutler B. Endotoxin-responsive sequences control cachectin/tumor necrosis factor biosynthesis at the translational level. J Exp Med 1990: 171: 465475.
  • 16
    Piecyk M, Wax S, Beck A R et al. TIA-1 is a translational silencer that selectively regulates the expression of TNF-alpha. EMBO J 2000: 19 (15): 41544163.
  • 17
    Kontoyiannis D, Pasparakis M, Pizarro T T, Cominelli F, Kollias G. Impaired on/off regulation of TNF biosynthesis in mice lacking TNF AU-rich elements: implications for joint and gut-associated immunopathologies. Immunity 1999: 10: 387398.
  • 18
    Schottelius A J, Mayo M W, Sartor R B, Baldwin A S J. Interleukin-10 signaling blocks inhibitor of kappaB kinase activity and nuclear factor kappaB DNA binding. J Biol Chem 1999: 274 (45): 3186831874.
  • 19
    Wong B, Choi Y. Pathways leading to cell death in T cells. Curr Opin Immunol 1997: 9: 358364.
  • 20
    Butler D M, Malfait A, Mason L J et al. DBA/1 mice expressing the human TNF-alpha transgene develop a severe, erosive arthritis. J Immunol 1997: 159 (6): 28672876.
  • 21
    Alexopoulou L, Pasparakis M, Kollias G. A murine transmembrane tumor necrosis factor transgene induces arthritis by cooperative p55/p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling. Eur J Immunol 1997: 27 (10): 25882592.
  • 22
    C K, Chlipala E S, Dinarello C A, Reznikov L L, Moldawer L L, Bendele A M. Clinical and histopathologic characterization of arthritis in male and female tumor necrosis factor-alpha knockout (TNF-alpha–/–) and membrane-bound TNF-alpha transgenic (TNF-alphaTgA86) mice injected with mycoplasma pulmonies or mycoplasma arthritidis. Arthritis Rheum 1999: 42: S120.
  • 23
    Marinova-Mutafchieva L, Williams R O, Masoon L J Mauri C, Feldmann M, Maini R N. Dynamics of proinflammatory cytokine expression in the joints o mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Clin Exp Immunol 1997: 107: 507512.
  • 24
    Mussener A, Litton M J, Lindros E, Klareskog L. Cytokine production in synovial tissue of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Clin Exp Immunol 1997: 107: 485493.
  • 25
    Jeng K C G, Liu M T, Lan J L, Wu C.H, Wong D W, Cheung B M. H. Collagen induces cytokine production by synovial fluid mononuclear cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Immune responses in MHC class II-deficient mice. Immunol Lett 1995: 45: 1317.
  • 26
    Thorbecke G J, Shah R, Leu C.H, Kuruvilla A P, Hardison A M Palladino M A. Involvement of endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha and transforming growth factor beta during induction of collagen type II arthritis in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992: 89: 73757379.
  • 27
    Williams R O, Feldmann M, Maini R N. Anti-tumor necrosis factor ameliorates joint disease in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992: 89: 97849788.
  • 28
    Piguet P F, Grau G E, Vesin C, Loetscher H, Gentz R, Lesslauer W. Evolution of collagen arthritis in mice is arrested by treatment with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antibody or a recombinant soluble TNF receptor. Immunology 1992: 77: 510514.
  • 29
    Probert L, Plows D, Kontogeorgos G, Kollias G. The type I interleukin-1 receptor acts in series with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to induce arthritis in TNF-transgenic mice. Eur J Immunol 1995: 25 (6): 17941797.
  • 30
    Ulfgren A K, Andersson U, Engstrom M, Klareskog L, Maini R N, Taylor P C. Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis down-regulates synovial tumor necrosis factor alpha synthesis. Arthritis Rheum 2000: 43 (11): 23912396.
  • 31
    Van Den Berg W B, Joosten L A, Kollias G, Van De Loo F A. Role of tumour necrosis factor alpha in experimental arthritis: separate activity of interleukin 1beta in chronicity and cartilage destruction. Ann Rheum Dis 1999: 58 (Suppl. 1): I40I48.
  • 32
    Van Den Berg W B. Uncoupling of inflammatory and destructive mechanisms in arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2001: 30 (5): 717.
  • 33
    Kuiper S, Joosten L A B, Bendele A M et al. Different roles of tumour necrosis factor a and interleukin 1 in murine streptococcal cell wall arthritis. Cytokine 1998: 10 (9): 690702.
  • 34
    Joosten L A, Helsen M M A, Saxne T, Van-de-Loo F A J, Heinegard D, Van-den-Berg W B. IL-1alphabeta blockade prevents cartilage and bone destruction in murine type II collagen-induced arthritis, whereas TNF-alpha blockade only ameliorates joint inflammation. J Immunol 1999: 163 (9): 50495055.
  • 35
    Joosten L A, Helsen M M A, Vandeloo F A J, Vandenberg W B. Anticytokine Treatment of Established Type I I, Collagen-Induced Arthritis In D B A/1 Mice: a comparative study using anti-TNF-alpha, anti-IL-1-alpha/beta, and IL−1ra. Immune responses in MHC class II-deficient mice. Arthritis Rheum 1996: 39 (5): 797809.
  • 36
    Campbell I K, O'Donnell K, Lawlor K E, Wicks I P. Severe inflammatory arthritis and lymphadenopathy in the absence of TNF. J Clin Invest 2001: 107 (12): 15191527.
  • 37
    Van Der Poll T, Van Deventer S J, Hack C E et al. Effects of leukocytes after injection of tumor necrosis factor into healthy humans. Blood 1992: 79: 693698.
  • 38
    Van Der Poll T, Van Deventer S J, Buller H R, Sturk A, Ten Cate J W. Comparison of the early dynamics of systemic prostacyclin release after administration of tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin to healthy humans. J Infect Dis 1991: 164: 599601.
  • 39
    Van Der Poll T, Romijn J A, Endert E, Borm J J, Buller H R, Sauerwein H P. Tumor necrosis factor mimics the metabolic response to acute infection in health humans. Am J Physiol 1991: 261: E457E465.
  • 40
    Van Der Poll T, Levi M, Buller H R et al. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects. J Exp Med 1991: 174: 729732.
  • 41
    Spriggs D R, Sherman M L, Michie H et al. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor administered as a 24-hour intravenous infusion. A phase I and pharmacologic study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988: 80 (13): 10391044.
  • 42
    Zamkoff K W, Newman N B, Rudolph A R, Young J, Poiesz B J. A phase I trial of subcutaneously administered recombination tumor necrosis factor to patients with advanced malignancy. J Biol Response Mod 1989: 8 (5): 539552.
  • 43
    Aderka D, Sorkine P, Abu-Abeid S et al. Shedding kinetics of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors after systemic TNF leaking during isolated limb perfusion. Relevance to the pathophysiology of septic shock. J Clin Invest 1998: 101: 650659.
  • 44
    Zwaveling J H, Maring J K, Clarke F L et al. High plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha concentrations and a sepsis–like syndrome in patients undergoing hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with recombinant TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma, and melphalan. Crit Care Med 1996: 24: 765770.
  • 45
    Edwards C K. III PEGylated recombinant human soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor type I (r-Hu-sTNF-RI) novel high affinity TNF receptor designed for chronic inflammatory diseases. Ann Rheum Dis 1999: 58 (Suppl. 1): 173181.
  • 46
    Bemelmans M H, Gouma D J, Buurman W A. Tissue distribution and clearance of soluble murine TNF receptors in mice. Cytokine 1994: 6: 608615.
  • 47
    Seckinger P, Isaaz S, Dayer J M. Purification and biologic characterization of a specific tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor. J Biol Chem 1989: 264: 1196611973.
  • 48
    Seckinger P, Isaaz S, Dayer J M. A human inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor alpha. J Exp Med 1988: 167 (4): 15111516.
  • 49
    Seckinger P, Zhang J H, Hauptmann B, Dayer J M. Characterization of a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor: evidence of immunological cross-reactivity with the TNF receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990: 87: 51885192.
  • 50
    Frishman J I, Edwards C K, Sonnenberg M G, Kohno T, Cohen A M, Dinarello C A. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced interleukin-8 in human blood cultures discriminates neutralization by the p55 and p75 TNF soluble receptors. J Infect Dis 2000: 182 (6): 17221730.
  • 51
    Grell M, Wajant H, Zimmerman G, Scheurich P. The type I receptor (CD120a) is the high-affinity receptor for soluble tumor necrosis factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998: 95 (2): 570575.
  • 52
    Tartaglia L A, Pennica D, Goeddel D V. Ligand passing: the 75-kd tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor recrutits TNF for signaling by the 55 Kd TNF receptor. J Biol Chem 1993: 268 (25): 1854218548.
  • 53
    Grell M, Zimmerman G, Hulser D, Pfizenmaier K, Scheurich P. TNF receptors TR60 and TR80 can mediate apoptosis via induction of distinct signal pathways. J Immunol 1994: 153: 19631972.
  • 54
    Weiss T, Grell M, Siemienski K et al. TNFR80-dependent enhancement of TNFR60-induced cell death is mediated by TNFR-associated factor 2 and is specific for TNFR60. J Immunol 1998: 161: 31363142.
  • 55
    Malinin N L, Boldin M P, Kovalenko A V, Wallach D. MAP3K-related kinase involved in NK-κΒ induction by TNF, CD95 and IL-1. Nature 1997: 385: 540544.
  • 56
    Baeuerle P A, Baltimore D. N F-Kappa-B: ten years after. Cell 1996: 87: 1320.
  • 57
    Wang C Y, Mayo M W, Baldwin A S J. TNF-and cancer therapy-induced apoptosis: potentiation by inhibition of NF-kappaB. Science 1996: 274 (5288): 784787.
  • 58
    Pimentel-Muinos F X, Seed B. Regulated commitment of TNF receptor signaling: a molecular switch for death or activation. Immunity 1999: 11 (6): 783793.
  • 59
    Peschon J J, Torrance D S, Stocking K L et al. TNF receptor-deficient mice reveal divergent roles for p55 and p75 in several models of inflammation. J Immunol 1998: 160: 943952.
  • 60
    Nowak M, Gaines G C, Rosenberg J et al. LPS-induced liver injury in d-galactosamine-sensitized mice requires secreted TNF-alpha and the TNF-p55 receptor. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2000: 278 (5): R1202R1209.
  • 61
    Welborn M B, Vanzee K, Edwards P D et al. A Human Tumor Necrosis Factor P75 receptor agonist stimulates in vitro T cell proliferation but does not produce inflammation or shock in the baboon. J Exp Med 1996: 184: 165171.
  • 62
    Van Zee K J, Stackpole S A, Montegut W J et al. A human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha mutant that binds exclusively to the p55 TNF receptor produces toxicity in the baboon. J Exp Med 1994: 179: 11851191.
  • 63
    Sheehan K C, Pinckard J K, Arthur C D, Dehner L P, Goeddel D V, Schreiber D. Monoclonal antibodies specific for murine p55 and p75 tumor necrosis receptors: identification of a novel in vivo role for p75. J Exp Med 1995: 181: 607617.
  • 64
    Pfeffer K, Matsuyama T, Kuendig T M et al. Mice deficient for the 55 kd tumor necrosis factor receptor are resistant to endotoxic shock, yet succumb to L. monocytogenes infection. Cell 1993: 73: 457467.
  • 65
    Rothe J, Lesslauer W, Loetscher H et al. Mice lacking the tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 are resistant to TNF-mediated toxicity but highly susceptible to infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Nature 1993: 364: 798802.
  • 66
    Erickson S L, De Sauvage F J, Kikly K et al. Decreased sensitivity to tumor-necrosis factor but normal T-cell development in TNF receptor-2-deficient mice. Nature 1994: 372: 560563.
  • 67
    Grell M, Douni E, Wajant H et al. The transmembrane form of tumor necrosis factor is the prime activating ligand of the 80kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor. Cell 1995: 83: 793802.
  • 68
    Kusters S, Tiegs G, Alexopoulou L et al. In vivo evidence for a functional role of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and transmembrane TNF in experimental hepatitis. Eur J Immunol 1997: 27 (11): 28702875.
  • 69
    Douni E, Kollias G. A critical role of the p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75TNF-R) in organ inflammation independent of TNF, lymphotoxin alpha, of the p55TNF-R. J Exp Med 1998: 188 (7): 13431352.
  • 70
    Williams L M, Gibbons D L, Gearing A, Maini R N, Feldmann M, Brennan F M. Paradoxical effects of a synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitor that blocks both P55 and P75 TNF receptor shedding and TNFalpha processing in Ra synovial membrane cell cultures. J Clin Invest 1996: 97: 28332841.
  • 71
    Feldmann M. Development of anti-TNF therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Rev Immunol 2002: 2 (5): 364371.
  • 72
    Di G F, Nuki G, Duff G W. Tumour necrosis factor in synovial exudates. Ann Rheum Dis 1988: 47: 768772.
  • 73
    Feldmann M, Brennan F M, Maini R N. Role of cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Annu Rev Immunol 1996: 14: 397440.
  • 74
    Firestein G S, Alvaro-Garcia J M, Maki R. Quantitative analysis of cytokine gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol 1990: 144: 33473353.
  • 75
    Chu C Q, Field M, Feldmann M, Maini R N. Localization of tumor necrosis factor alpha in synovial tissues and at the cartilage-pannus junction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1991: 34 (9): 1125.
  • 76
    Alvaro-Gracia J M, Zvaifler N J, Brown C B, Kaushansky K, Firestein G S. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. VI. Analysis of the synovial cells involved in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production and gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis and its regulation by IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Immunol 1991: 146 (10): 33653371.
  • 77
    Alvaro-Gracia J M, Zvaifler N J, Firestein G S. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. V. mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on HLA-DR expression, proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. J Clin Invest 1990: 86 (6): 17901798.
  • 78
    Alvaro-Gracia J M, Zvaifler N J, Firestein G S. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. V. Mutual antagonism between interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on HLA-DR expression, proliferation, collagenase production, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. J Clin Invest 1990: 86 (6): 17901798.
  • 79
    Alsalameh S, Winter K, Al-Ward R, Wendler J, Kalden J R, Kinne R W. Distribution of TNF-alpha, TNF-R55 and TNF-R75 in the rheumatoid synovial membrane: TNF receptors are localized preferentially in the lining layer; TNF-alpha is distributed mainly in the vicinity of TNF receptors in the deeper layers. Scand J Immunol 1999: 49 (3): 278285.
  • 80
    Robak T, Gladalska A, Stepien H. The tumor necrosis factor family of receptors/ligands in the serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Eur Cytokine Netw 1998: 9: 145154.
  • 81
    Steiner G, Studnicka-Benke A, Witzmann G, Hofler E, Smolen J. Soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-2 in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis and osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1995: 22 (3): 406412.
  • 82
    Saklatvala J. Tumour necrosis factor alpha stimulates resorption and inhibits synthesis of proteoglycan in cartilage. Nature 1986: 322: 547549.
  • 83
    Kristensen M, Chu C Q, Eedy D J, Feldmann M, Brennan F M, Breathnach S M. Localization of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors in normal and psoriatic skin: epidermal cells express the 55-kD but not the 75-kD TNF receptor. Clin Exp Immunol 1993: 94: 354362.
  • 84
    Beyaert R, Schulze-Osthoff K, Van Roy F, Fiers W. Synergistic induction of interleukin-6 by tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride in mice: possible role in the triggering and exacerbation of psoriasis by lithium treatment. Eur J Immunol 1992: 22 (8): 21812184.
  • 85
    Bonifati C, Carducci M, Cordiali F P et al. Correlated increases of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor levels in suction blister fluids and sera of psoriatic patients – relationships with disease severity. Clin Exp Dermatol 1994: 19 (5): 383387.
  • 86
    Ettehadi P, Greaves M W, Wallach D, Aderka D, Camp R D. Elevated tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) biological activity in psoriatic skin lesions. Clin Exp Immunol 1994: 96 (1): 146151.
  • 87
    Olaniran A K, Baker B S, Paige D G, Garioch J J, Powles A V, Fry L. Cytokine expression in psoriatic skin lesions during PUVA therapy. Arch Dermatol Res 1996: 288 (8): 421425.
  • 88
    Nickoloff B J, Karabin G D, Barker J N et al. Cellular localization of interleukin-8 and its inducer, tumor necrosis factor-alpha in psoriasis. Am J Pathol 1991: 138 (1): 129140.
  • 89
    Uyemura K, Yamamura M, Fivenson D F, Modlin R L, Nickoloff B J. The cytokine network in lesional and lesion-free psoriatic skin is characterized by a T-helper type 1 cell-mediated response. J Invest Dermatol 1993: 101 (5): 701705.
  • 90
    Asadullah K, Prosch S, Audring H et al. A high prevalence of cytomegalovirus antigenaemia in patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis: an association with systemic tumour necrosis factor alpha overexpression. Br J Dermatol 1999: 141 (1): 94102.
  • 91
    Ritchlin C, Haas-Smith S A, Hicks D, Cappuccio J, Osterland C K, Looney R J. Patterns of cytokine production in psoriatic synovium. J Rheumatol 1998: 25 (8): 15441552.
  • 92
    Partsch G, Steiner G, Leeb B F, Dunky A, Broll H, Smolen J S. Highly increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and other proinflammatory cytokines in psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid. J Rheumatol 1997: 24: 518523.
  • 93
    Suda T, Takahashi T, Golstein P, Nagata S. Molecular cloning and expression of the Fas ligand, a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor family. Cell 1993: 75 (6): 11691178.
  • 94
    Moreland L W, McCabe D P, Caldwell J R et al. Phase I/II trial of recombinant methionyl human tumor necrosis factor binding protein PEGylated dimer in patients with active refractory rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000: 27 (3): 601609.
  • 95
    Moreland L W, Baumgartner S W, Schiff M H et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75)-Fc fusion protein. New Engl J Medical 1997: 337 (3): 141147.
  • 96
    Moreland L W, Heck J, Koopman W J. Biologic agents for treating rheumatoid arthritis: concepts and progress. Arthritis Rheum 1997: 40: 397409.
  • 97
    Jacobi A, Manger B, Schuler G, Hertl M. Therapeutic application of TNF-alpha inhibitors infliximab and etanercept in inflammatory skin disorders. J Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft 2003: 1 (4): 259272.
  • 98
    Maini R, St Clair E W, Breedveld F et al. Infliximab (chimeric anti-tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate: a randomised phase III trial. Lancet 1999: 354: 19321939.
  • 99
    Maini R N, Elliott M, Brennan F M, Williams R O, Feldmann M. TNF blockade in rheumatoid arthritis: implications for therapy and pathogenesis. APMIS 1997: 105 (4): 257263.
  • 100
    Santora L C, Krull I S, Grant K. Characterization of recombinant human monoclonal tissue necrosis factor-alpha antibody using cation-exchange HPLC and capillary isoelectric focusing. Anal Biochem 1999: 275 (1): 98108.
  • 101
    Kempeni J. Update on D2E7: a fully human anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody. Ann Rheum Dis 2000: 59 (Suppl 1): 4445.
  • 102
    Christen U, Thuerkauf R, Stevens R, Lesslauer W. Immune response to a recombinant human TNFR55-IgG1 fusion protein: auto- antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have neither neutralizing nor agonist activities. Hum Immunol 1999: 60 (9): 774790.
  • 103
    Furst D, Weisman M, Paulus H et al. Neutralization of TNF by Lenercept. (TNFr55-IgG1, Ro 45–2081) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 3 months; results of an US phase II trial. Arthritis Rheum 1996: 39: S243.
  • 104
    Sander O, Rau R, Van Riel P L et al. (TNFR55-IgG1, Ro 45–2081) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated for 3 months: results of a European phase II trial. Arthritis Rheum 1996: 39: S242.
  • 105
    Sander O, Rau R. Long term observation of 80 patients treated with TNF alpha receptor-fusion protein (TNFR55- IgG1, Ro 45–2081). Arthritis Rheum 2000: 40 (9): S224.
  • 106
    Kneer J, Luedin E, Lesslauer W, Birnboeck H, Stevens R M. An assessment of the effect of anti-drug antibody formation of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sTNFr55-IgG (Ro 45-2081-Lenercept [LEN]) (S.C.) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1998: 41: S58.
  • 107
    Solorzano C C, Ksontini R, Pruitt J H et al. Involvement of 26-kDa cell associated TNFa in experimental hepatitis and exacerbation of liver injury with a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. J Immunol 1997: 158 (1): 414419.
  • 108
    Solorzano C C, Kaibara A, Hess P J et al. Pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity and efficacy of dimeric TNFR binding proteins in healthy and bacteremic baboon. J Appl Physiol 1998: 84 (4): 11191130.
  • 109
    Serono. Positive results of onercept in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in phase II trials. 9th International Psoriasis Symposium in New York June 2003.
  • 110
    Serono. Serono announces positive results of onercept in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in phase II trials. 6-22-2003. (
  • 111
    Oh C J, Das K M, Gottlieb A B. Treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody dramatically decreases the clinical activity of psoriasis lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000: 42: 829830.
  • 112
    Kirby B, Marsland A M, Carmichael A J, Griffiths C E. Successful treatment of severe recalcitrant psoriasis with combination infliximab and methotrexate. Clin Exp Dermatol 2001: 26 (1): 2729.
  • 113
    Chaudhari U, Romano P, Mulcahy L D, Dooley L T, Baker D G, Gottlieb A B. Efficacy and safety of infliximab monotherapy for plaque-type psoriasis: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001: 357 (9271): 18421847.
  • 114
    Gottlieb A B, Masud S, Ramamurthi R et al. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody (infliximab) treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003: 48 (1): 6875.
  • 115
    Gottlieb A B, Li S, Evans R, Menter A. Infliximab in the treatment of psoriasis: results from the first 10 weeks of the phase II trial. 61th Annu Meet Am Acad Dermatol (March 21–26, 2003 San Francisco).
  • 116
    Buchholz C. Promising new results reported for Remicade (infliximab) in the treatment of psoriasis. 3-1-2003. (
  • 117
    Gulliver WP, Brown-Maher T, Tabrizi M. Low dose infliximab improves psoriasis. 61th Annu Meet Am Acad Dermatol (March 21–26, 2003 San Francisco).
  • 118
    Newland M R, Weinstein A, Kerdel F. Rapid response to infliximab in severe pustular psoriasis, von Zumbusch type. Int J Dermatol 2002: 41 (7): 449452.
  • 119
    O'Quinn R P, Miller J L. The effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody (Infliximab) in treating recalcitrant psoriasis: a report of 2 cases. Arch Dermatol 2002: 138 (5): 644648.
  • 120
    Cauza E, Spak M, Cauza K, Hanusch-Enserer U, Dunky A, Wagner E. Treatment of psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis vulgaris with the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor infliximab. Rheumatol Int 2002: 22 (6): 227232.
  • 121
    Antoni C, Dechant C, Hanns-Martin Lorenz P D et al. Open-label study of infliximab treatment for psoriatic arthritis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging measurements of reduction of inflammation. Arthritis Rheum 2002: 47 (5): 506512.
  • 122
    Ogilvie A L, Antoni C, Dechant C et al. Treatment of psoriatic arthritis with antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody clears skin lesions of psoriasis resistant to treatment with methotrexate. Br J Dermatol 2001: 144 (3): 587589.
  • 123
    Antoni C, Smolen J. The Infliximab Multinational Psoriatic Arthritis Controlled Trial (IMPACT). 61th Annu Meet J Am Acad Dermatol (March 21–26, 2003 San Francisco).
  • 124
    Mease P J, Goffe B S, Metz J, VanderStoep A, Finck B, Burge D J. Etanercept in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: a randomised trial. Lancet 2000: 356 (9227): 385390.
  • 125
    Mease P. Psoriatic arthritis: the role of TNF inhibition and the effect of its inhibition with etanercept. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2002: 20 (Suppl 28): S116.
  • 126
    Mease P J. Etanercept in psoriatic arthritis. 59th Annu Meet Am Acad Dermatol. Washington, DC 2001.
  • 127
    Gottlieb A B, Goffe B S, Burge D J, Zitnik R, Wayne T. Etanercept inhibits radiographic progression in patients with psoriatic arthritis. J Investig Dermatol 2003: 120 (7): 430.
  • 128
    Leonardi C, Powell J I, Matheson R. T et al. Etanercept as monotherapy in patients with psoriasis. N Engl J Med 2003: 349: 20142022.
  • 129
    Leonardi C, Gottlieb A B, Zitnik R. Efficacy and safety of Enbrel in patients with psoriasis: results of a phase 3 study. J Investig Dermatol 2003: 120 (7): 430.
  • 130
    Leonardi C L, Powers J L, Matheson R T et al. Etanercept as monotherapy in patients with psoriasis. N Engl J Med 2003: 349 (21): 20142022.
  • 131
    Gottlieb A B, Feng A, Zitnik R. Prolonged response durability following etanercept monotherapy. J Invest Dermatol 2003: 120 (7): 430.
  • 132
    Kamarashev J, Lor P, Forster A, Heinzerling L, Burg G, Nestle F O. Generalised pustular psoriasis induced by cyclosporin a withdrawal responding to the tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitor etanercept. Dermatology 2002: 205 (2): 213216.
  • 133
    Norris D A. Cytokine modulation of adhesion molecules in the regulation of immunologic cytotoxicity of epidermal targets. J Invest Dermatol 1990: 95 (6 Suppl.): 111S120S.
  • 134
    Scallon B J, Moore M A, Trinh H, Knight D M, Ghrayeb J. Chimeric anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody cA2 binds recombinant transmembrane TNF-alpha and activates immune effector functions. Cytokine 1995: 7 (3): 251259.
  • 135
    Lugering A, Schmidt M, Lugering N, Pauels H G, Domschke W, Kucharzik T. Infliximab induces apoptosis in monocytes from patients with chronic active Crohn's disease by using a caspase-dependent pathway. Gastroenterology 2001: 121 (5): 11451157.
  • 136
    Agnholt J, Kaltoft K. Infliximab downregulates interferon-gamma production in activated gut T-lymphocytes from patients with Crohn's disease. Cytokine 2001: 15 (4): 212222.
  • 137
    Lorenz H M, Antoni C, Valerius T et al. In vivo blockade of TNF-alpha by intravenous infusion of a chimeric monoclonal TNF-alpha antibody in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Short term cellular and molecular effects. J Immunol 1996: 156: 16461653.
  • 138
    Bell S, Degitz K, Quirling M, Jilg N, Page S, Brand K. Involvement of NF-[kappa]B signalling in skin physiology and disease. Cellular Signalling 2003: 15 (1): 17.
  • 139
    Nikolaus S, Raedler A, Kuhbacker T, Sfikas N, Folsch U R, Schreiber S. Mechanisms in failure of infliximab for Crohn's disease. Lancet 2000: 356 (9240): 14751479.
  • 140
    Baldwin A S Jr. The NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: new discoveries and insights. Annu Rev Immunol 1996: 14: 649683.
  • 141
    Immunex Inc. Enbrel, prescribing information. 11-1-1998.
  • 142
    Mimouni D, Anhalt G J, Kouba D J, Nousari H C. Infliximab for peristomal pyoderma gangrenosum. Br J Dermatol 2003: 148 (4): 813816.
  • 143
    Voigtlander C, Luftl M, Schuler G, Hertl M. Infliximab (anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody): a novel, highly effective treatment of recalcitrant subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon–Wilkinson disease). Arch Dermatol 2001: 137 (12): 15711574.
  • 144
    Sullivan T P, Welsh E, Kerdel F A, Burdick A E, Kirsner R S. Infliximab for hidradenitis suppurativa. Br J Dermatol 2003: 149 (5): 10461049.
  • 145
    Kobbe G, Schneider P, Rohr U et al. Treatment of severe steroid refractory acute graft-versus-host disease with infliximab, a chimeric human/mouse antiTNFalpha antibody. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001: 28 (1): 4749.
  • 146
    Humeniuk J M, Gliptis E. Infliximab in the treatment of panniculitis. World Congress Of Dermatology Paris July 1–5 2002.
  • 147
    Sacher C, Rubbert A, Konig C, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Krieg T, Hunzelmann N. Treatment of recalcitrant cicatricial pemphigoid with the tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist etanercept. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002: 46 (1): 113115.
  • 148
    Henter J I, Karlen J, Calming U, Bernstrand C, Andersson U, Fadeel B. Successful treatment of Langerhans′-cell histiocytosis with etanercept. N Engl J Med 2001: 345 (21): 15771578.
  • 149
    Gay N J, Keith F J, Drosophila T. IL-1 receptor. Nature 1991: 351: 355356.
  • 150
    Bozkurt B, Torre A G, Warren M S et al. Results of targeted anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy with etanercept (ENBREL) in patients with advanced heart failure. Circulation 2001: 103 (8): 10441047.
  • 151
    Slifman N R, Gershon S K, Lee J H, Edwards E T, Braun M M. Listeria monocytogenes infection as a complication of treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agents. Arthritis Rheum 2003: 48 (2): 319324.
  • 152
    Lee J H, Slifman N R, Gershon S K et al. Life-threatening histoplasmosis complicating immunotherapy with tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists infliximab and etanercept. Arthritis Rheum 2002: 46 (10): 25652570.
  • 153
    Netea M G, Radstake T, Joosten L A, Van Der Meer J W, Barrera P, Kullberg B J. Salmonella septicemia in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy: association with decreased interferon-gamma production and Toll-like receptor 4 expression. Arthritis Rheum 2003: 48 (7): 18531857.
  • 154
    Keane J, Gershon S, Wise R P et al. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent. N Engl J Med 2001: 345 (15): 10981104.
  • 155
    Manadan A M, Mohan A K, Cote R T, Siegel J N, Sequiera W, Block J A. Tuberculosis and etanercept treatment. Arthritis Rheum 2002: 46 (Suppl): S166.
  • 156
    Georgopoulos S, Plows D, Kollias G. Transmembrane TNF is sufficient to induce localized tissue toxicity and chronic inflammatory arthritis in transgenic mice. J Inflamm 1996: 46 (2): 8697.
  • 157
    Scallon B, Cai A, Solowski N et al. Binding and functional comparisons of two types of tumor necrosis factor antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002: 301: 418426.
  • 158
    Van den Brande J M, Braat H, Van Den Brink G R et al. Infliximab but not etanercept induces apoptosis in lamina propria T-lymphocytes from patients with Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2003: 124 (7): 17741785.
  • 159
    Van Deventer S J. Transmembrane TNF-alpha, induction of apoptosis, and the efficacy of TNF-targeting therapies in Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2001: 121 (5): 12421246.
  • 160
    Zou J, Rudwaleit M, Brandt J, Thiel A, Braun J, Sieper J. Down-regulation of the nonspecific and antigen-specific T cell cytokine response in ankylosing spondylitis during treatment with infliximab. Arthritis Rheum 2003: 48 (3): 780790.
  • 161
    Zou J, Rudwaleit M, Brandt J, Thiel A, Braun J, Sieper J. Up regulation of the production of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma by T cells in ankylosing spondylitis during treatment with etanercept. Ann Rheum Dis 2003: 62 (6): 561564.
  • 162
    Ottenhoff T H, Verreck F A, Lichtenauer-Kaligis E G, Hoeve M A, Sanal O, Van Dissel J T. Genetics, cytokines and human infectious disease: lessons from weakly pathogenic mycobacteria and salmonellae. Nat Genet 2002: 32 (1): 97105.
  • 163
    Coaccioli S, Di Cato L, Marioli D et al. Impaired cutaneous cell-mediated immunity in newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis. Panminerva Med 2000: 42 (4): 263266.
  • 164
    Brown S L, Greene M H, Gershon S K, Edwards E T, Braun M M. Tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy and lymphoma development: twenty-six cases reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Arthritis Rheum 2002: 46 (12): 31513158.
  • 165
    C K, Borcherding S, Zhang J, Borcherding D R, Laskin D L., Edwards III The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in acute and chronic inflammatory responses: novel therapeutic approaches. In: SchookL B, ed. Xenobiotic Induced Inflammation: Roles of Cytokines and Growth Factors. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1994: 97147.
  • 166
    Decision Resources I. TNF-alpha inhibitors (Immune, Inflammatory Disorders Study # 34). Waltham, MA, Decision Resources, Inc. Immune and Inflammatory Disorders. 2001.
  • 167
    Aggarwal B B. Signalling pathways of the TNF superfamily: a double-edged sword. Nat Rev Immunol 2003: 3 (9): 745756.
  • 168
    Wanke L A, Burge D J. Etanercept improves health-related quality of life in patients with psoriatic arthritis. 60th Annu Meet Am Acad Dermatol (February 22–27, New Orleans) 2002.
  • 169
    Lebwohl M, Gottlieb A B, Mease P J, Burge D J. Etanercept improves psoriasis activity in patients with psoriatic arthritis: results of a phase 3 multicenter clinical trial. 60th Annu Meet Am Acad Dermatol (February 22–27, New Orleans) 2003.
  • 170
    Gottlieb A B, Metheson R T, Lowe N, Zitnik R. Efficacy of Enbrel in patients with psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol 2002: 119: 234.