ABSTRACT. Serum concentrations of creatinine and of the three low molecular weight (LMW) proteins cystatin C, factor D of the complement system and β2-microglobulin were measured in 135 consecutive patients, whose glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were determined by Cr-EDTA. In the total patient series, the reciprocals of S-creatinine and S-cystatin C were numerically and, in males, significantly more closely correlated to GFR than the reciprocals of S-factor D. The reciprocals of β2-microglobulin showed a weaker correlation to GFR than those of the other three substances. The calculated glomerular elimination rates of creatinine, cystatin C and factor D were normally distributed, in contrast to those of β2-microglobulin. According to data presented so far, cystatin C seems to be the LMW protein of first choice when GFR is to be estimated by measuring the plasma concentration of a LMW protein.