ABSTRACT. Seventeen patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, all below the age of 45 years, were studied. Five of them had retinopathy but no other micro- or macrovascular diabetic complications. None of them had any other concurrent disorder or were on any medication but insulin. The results were compared to those of 17 healthy volunteers of comparable age. There was no difference between the two groups in venous platelet counts, serum production of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), ADP-induced platelet aggregation or bleeding times. As compared to the controls, the diabetics had significantly elevated blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin values. The mean plasma values of β-thromboglobulin, platelet factor 4 and TXB2 were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. Thus, our results do not lend support to the current concept that platelet reactivity is enhanced in diabetes mellitus.