Ant communities have been widely used as indicators of minesite rehabilitation in Australia and are beginning to play a similar role in other parts of the world. Here we examine ant communities on rehabilitated ash dams associated with a coal-fired power station on the highveld of South Africa, to improve our understanding of ecosystem development on these substrates. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps at 11 ash-dam sites, ranging from unrehabilitated to 9-year-old rehabilitated sites, as well as two adjacent natural grassland sites. Sampling was conducted on 12 occasions from March 1997 to January 1999. Forty-nine ant species from 19 genera were recorded during the study. Site species richness was positively correlated with rehabilitation age, ranging from 10 to 25 at ash-dam sites, compared with 28 and 34 at the two natural grassland sites. There was a humped relationship between total ant abundance and rehabilitation age, with abundance peaking after 5–7 years at levels far higher than those at natural sites. Ordination analysis showed clear separation between ash-dam and natural sites along the first axis. The unrehabilitated ash-dam site was also separated from rehabilitated sites along the first axis. Sites of different rehabilitation age were separated along the second axis. Individual ant species showed clear successional patterns across the rehabilitation gradient. Although there was a clear successional trend for the development of ant communities on rehabilitated ash dams, this trend was not toward natural grassland. The lack of convergence toward ant communities of natural grasslands reflects the markedly different substrate and plant composition on ash dams and supports the widely held view that restoration of natural grassland communities is not a realistic goal of ash-dam rehabilitation. However, the development of species-rich ant communities, containing at least some late-successional species, indicates the potential for rehabilitated ash dams to support diverse and complex ecosystems.