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Participation of the peripheral nervous system in wound healing is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sympathetic denervation on rat excisional cutaneous wound healing. Male rats were chemically denervated with intraperitoneal administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in 1% ascorbic acid. 6-OHDA or vehicle was administered twice a week until euthanasia, beginning 7 days before wounding. A full-thickness excisional lesion was performed and the lesion area measured to evaluate wound contraction. After euthanasia, the lesion and adjacent normal skin were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or toluidine blue, or immunostained for α-smooth muscle actin. Animals treated with 6-OHDA showed acceleration in wound contraction, increase in myofibroblastic differentiation, reduction in mast cell migration, and a delay in reepithelialization. To investigate the effects of neurogenic inflammation, a group of animals was treated with 6-OHDA only after the acute inflammatory phase, and these animals showed delayed wound contraction 3 and 7 days after wounding when compared to those treated before the lesion. In conclusion, the present study shows that sympathetic denervation affects cutaneous wound healing, probably by a decrease in neurogenic inflammation during the initial phase of healing and the absence of catecholamines throughout the final phase.