SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aikens, S., & Koch, E. (1996). Building democracy online. Computer Mediated Communication Magazine, 3 (4). Retrieved January 17, 2005 from http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1996/apr/aikens.html.
  • Aldrich, J. (1995). Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
  • Althaus, S. L., & Tewksbury, D. (2000). Patterns of Internet and traditional news media use in a networked community. Political Communication, 17 (1), 2145.
  • Ault, A., & Jones, K. (1999). Three words Congress hates to hear: You've got mail. 5th est@te: Vote.com. Retrieved August 20, 2001 from http://www.vote.com/magazine/editorials/editorial1843752.phtml.
  • Baker, S., Green, H., & Hof, R. (2004, March 29). Click the vote. Business Week, 102107.
  • BBC (2002). U.S. Congress drowns in e-mail. Retrieved August 10, 2002 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/2181381.stm.
  • Bennett, W. L. (1996). An introduction to journalism norms and representations of politics. Political Communication, 13 (4), 373384.
  • Bimber, B. (1999). The Internet and citizen communication with government: Does the medium matter Political Communication, 16 (4), 409428.
  • Bimber, B. (2000). The study of information technology and civic engagement. Political Communication, 17 (4), 329333.
  • Black, E. (1970). The second persona. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56 (2), 109119.
  • Boncheck, M. (1995). Grassroots in cyberspace: Using computer networks to facilitate political participation. Paper presented to the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, IL, April 6.
  • Boncheck, M. S., Hurwitz, R., & Mallery, J. (1996). Will the Web democratize or polarize the political process? A White House electronic publications survey. World Wide Web Journal, 1 (3). Retrieved June 1, 2001 from http://www.w3j.com/3/s3.bonchek.html.
  • Browning, G. (1996). Electronic Democracy: Using the Internet to Influence Politics. Wilton , CT : Online, Inc.
  • Browning, G. (1996). Ballot lines. National Journal, 28 (16), 879882.
  • Browning, G., Caldow, J., Fose, M., McShea, K., & Ronen, J. (2001). Congress online: Assessing and improving Capitol Hill Web sites. Retrieved April 17, 2002 from http://www.congressonlineproject.org/pfcongressonline2002.html#blocks.
  • Browning, L. D. (1992). Lists and stories as organizational communication. Communication Theory, 2 (4), 281302.
  • Burke, K. (1969). A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley : University of California Press.
  • Casey, C. (1996). The Hill on the Net: Congress Enters the Information Age. Boston : AP Professional.
  • Chandrasekaran, R., & Pressler, M. W. (1997, December 24). More shoppers are buying online. Washington Post, C01.
  • Cochran, J. (2003). Internet based activist group puts powerful spin on politics. CQ Weekly, 61 (38), 24242426.
  • Congress ‘clueless’ on using Internet to reach voters. (1996, February 26). The Freedom Forum News, 4, 3651.
  • Cook, T. E. (1989). Making Laws and Making News: Media Strategies in the U.S. House of Representatives. Washington , D.C. : Brookings Institution.
  • Corman, S. R. (1994). Use and users of a Congressman's network information services. Internet Research, 4 (4), 3651.
  • Cornfield, M. (2000). Six best practices for candidate sites. Campaigns & Elections, 21 (4), 53.
  • Corrado, A., & Firestone, C. M. (Eds.) (1996). Elections in Cyberspace: Toward a New Era in American Politics. Washington , D.C. : The Aspen Institute.
  • Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2000). Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences. Thousand Oaks , CA : Pine Forge Press.
  • D'Alessio, D. (2000). Adoption of the World Wide Web by American political candidates. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44 (4), 556568.
  • Davis, R. (1999). The Web of Politics. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Delli Carpini, M., & Keeter, S. (1996). What Americans Know about Politics and Why it Matters. New Haven , CT : Yale University Press.
  • Dertouzos, M. L. (1997). What Will Be: How the New Information Marketplace Will Change Our Lives. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Dominick, J. R. (1999). Who do you think you are? Personal homepages and self-presentation on the World Wide Web. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76 (4), 646658.
  • Drinkard, J., & Lawrence, J. (2003, July 14). Online, off and running: Web a new campaign front. USA Today online. Retrieved January 15, 2005 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/200307-14-online-cover-usat_x.htm.
  • Dulio, D. A., Goff, D. L., & Thurber, J. A. (1999). Untangled Web: Internet use during the 1998 election. PS: Political Science and Politics, 32 (1), 5359.
  • Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (1999). Corporate World Wide Web pages: Serving the news media and other publics. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76 (3), 456467.
  • Esrock, S. L., & Leichty, G. B. (2000). Organization of corporate Web pages: Publics and functions. Public Relations Review, 26 (3), 327344.
  • Fenno, R. (1977). U. S. House members in their constituencies: An exploration. American Journal of Political Science, 71 (3), 883917.
  • Fenno, R. (1978). Homestyle: House Members in their Districts. New York : Harper Collins.
  • Grossman, L. (1995). The Electronic Commonwealth. New York : Penguin.
  • Ha, L., & James, E. L. (1998). Interactivity reexamined: A baseline analysis of early business web sites. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 42 (4), 456474.
  • Hart, R. (2000). Campaign Talk: Why Elections are Good for Us. Princeton , NJ : Princeton University Press.
  • Hartley, J. (2000). Radiocracy: Sound and citizenship. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 3 (2), 153159.
  • Hetherington, M. (2001). Resurgent mass partisanship: The role of elite polarization. American Political Science Review, 95 (3), 619631.
  • Hibbing, J., & Theiss-Morse, E. (1998, March). Too much of a good thing: More representation is not necessarily better. PS: Political Science and Politics, 31 (1), 2832.
  • Horrigan, J. B., & Rainie, L. (2002). Getting serious online. Retrieved January 17, 2005 from http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Getting_Serious_Online3ng.pdf.
  • Johnson, T., Braima, M., & Sothirajah, J. (1999). Doing the traditional media sidestep: Comparing the effects of the Internet and other nontraditional media with traditional media in the 1996 campaign. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76 (1), 99123.
  • Jones, S. G. (Ed.) (1995). Cybersociety: Computer Mediated Communication and Community. Thousand Oaks : Sage.
  • Kassarjian, H. H. (1977). Content analysis and consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 4 (1), 818.
  • King, S. (2003). On the Web, you're a retailer. Journal of Business Strategy, 24 (3), 812.
  • Klotz, R. (1997). Positive spin: Senate campaigning on the Web. PS: Political Science and Politics, 30 (3), 482486.
  • Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Newbury Park : Sage.
  • Kurtz, H. (1995, November 13). Webs of political intrigue: Candidates, media looking for internet constituents. Washington Post, B1.
  • Lesser, E. L., & Fontaine, M. A. (2002). What are your customers saying Marketing Management, 11 (6), 2227.
  • Lichter, S. R., & Amundson, D. R. (1994). Less news is worse news: Television news coverage of Congress, 1972–92. In T. E.Mann & N. J.Ornstein, (Eds.), Congress, the Press, and the Public (pp. 131140). Washington D.C. : American Enterprise Institute and the Brookings Institution.
  • Mayhew, D. R. (1974). Congress: The Electoral Connection. Yale : Yale University Press.
  • Mintz, J. (2000, February 9). McCain camp enjoys a big net advantage. Washington Post, A1.
  • McMillan, S. J. (2000). The microscope and the moving target: The challenge of applying content analysis to the World Wide Web. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 77 (1), 8098.
  • Musso, J., Weare, C., & Hale, M. (2000). Designing Web technologies for local governance reform: Good management or good democracy. Political Communication, 17 (1), 119.
  • Neuman, W. R. (2000, January 26). Campaign 2000: Web electioneering tests the waters. NetElection.org Commentary. Retrieved June 13, 2001 from http://netelection.org/commentary/2000003print.htm.
  • Patterson, T. (1994). Out of Order. New York : Vintage.
  • Regan, K. (2002, February 21). U.S.: E-Commerce tops $32B in 2001. E-Commerce Times. Retrieved May 5, 2003 from http://www.ecommercetimes.com/perl/story/16443.html.
  • Rosenkranz, J. E. (2000, November 3). Electoral fraud, pure and simple. Washington Post, A33.
  • Ryan, T., Field, R. H. G., & Olfman, L. (2003). The evolution of U.S. state government home pages from 1997 to 2002. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59 (4), 403430.
  • Scammell, M. (2000). The Internet and civic engagement: The age of the citizen-consumer. Political Communication, 17 (4), 351355.
  • Schroeder, C. M. (2001). Swinging back to the i-future: Focus must remain on ad potential. Advertising Age, 72 (22), 22.
  • Stephens, M. (1998). Which communications revolution is it, anyway Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 75 (1), 913.
  • Stokes, D. E., & DiIulio, J. J., Jr. (1993). The setting: Valence politics in modern elections. In M.Nelson (Ed.), The Elections of 1992 (pp. 118). Washington , D.C. : Congressional Quarterly Press.
  • Stromer-Galley, J. (2000). Online interaction and why candidates avoid it. Journal of Communication, 50 (4), 111133.
  • The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency (2002). New York : Bartleby.
  • “Trickling into the Mainstream.” (1996). Marketing Tools, 3 (4), 3133.
  • Ubois, J. (1995). Newt's Net: An interview with Don Jones, Newt Gingrich's system integrator and the creator of the THOMAS server. Internet World, 6 (8), 4548.
  • Uslaner, E. M. (1993). The Decline of Comity in Congress. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press.
  • Wattenberg, M. (1998). The Decline of American Political Parties, 1952–1996. Cambridge , MA : Harvard University Press.
  • Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J., & Jackson, D. D. (1967). Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes. New York : Norton.
  • Weare, C., & Lin, W. Y. (2000). Content analysis of the World Wide Web: Opportunities and challenges. Social Science Computer Review, 18 (3), 272292.
  • Weber, T. E. (1996, December 9). The internet: Who uses the internet Wall Street Journal, A6.
  • Weise, E. (2000). Not yet for the net. Media Studies Journal, 14 (1), 3641.