• Bimber, B., & Davis, R. (2003). Campaigning online: the Internet in U.S. elections. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Chaffee, S. H., Saphir, M. N., Graf, J., Sandvig, C., & Hahn, K. S. (2001). Attention to Counter-Attitudinal Messages in a State Election Campaign. Political Communication, 18, 247272.
  • Chaiken, S., & Stangor, C. (1987). Attitudes and Attitude Change. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 575630.
  • Fallows, D. (2005). Search engine users: Internet searchers are confident, satisfied and trusting but they are also unaware and naïve. Pew Internet and American Life Project.
  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Frey, D. (1981). The effect of negative feedback about oneself and cost of information on preferences for information about the source of this feedback. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 4250.
  • Frey, D. (1986). Recent research on selective exposure to information. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 4180.
  • Garrett, R. K. (in press). Politically motivated reinforcement seeking: Reframing the selective exposure debate. Journal of Communication.
  • Hargittai, E. (2004). Informed web surfing: the social context of user sophistication. In P. N.Howard & S.Jones (Eds.), Society online: The Internet in context (pp. 257274). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Hayes, A. F. (2006). A Primer on Multilevel Modeling. Human Communication Research, 32(4), 385410.
  • Holbrook, A. L., Berent, M. K., Krosnick, J. A., Visser, P. S., & Boninger, D. S. (2005). Attitude importance and the accumulation of attitude-relevant knowledge in memory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(5), 749769.
  • Kenski, K., & Stroud, N. J. (2006). Connections between Internet use and political efficacy, knowledge, and participation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50(2), 173192.
  • Kohut, A., Doherty, C., Dimock, M., & Keeter, S. (2006). Online papers modestly boost newspaper readership: Maturing Internet news audience—broader than deep. Washington, DC: Pew Research Center for The People and The Press.
  • Lazarsfeld, P. F., Berelson, B., & Gaudet, H. (1944). The people's choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Lord, C. G., Ross, L., & Lepper, M. R. (1979). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37(11), 20982109.
  • Munro, G. D., Ditto, P. H., Lockhart, L. K., Fagerlin, A., Gready, M., & Peterson, E. (2002). Biased assimilation of sociopolitical arguments: Evaluating the 1996 U.S. presidential debate. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24(1), 1526.
  • Mutz, D. C. (2006). Hearing the other side: Deliberative versus participatory democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mutz, D. C., & Martin, P. S. (2001). Facilitating communication across lines of political difference: the role of mass media. American Political Science Review, 95(1), 97114.
  • Neuman, W. R. (1996). Political communications infrastructure. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 546, 921.
  • Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
  • Sears, D. O., & Freedman, J. L. (1967). Selective exposure to information: A critical review. Public Opinion Quarterly, 31(2), 194213.
  • Stroud, N. J. (2007). Media Effects, Selective Exposure, and Fahrenheit 9/11 . Political Communication, 24(4), 415432.
  • Stroud, N. J. (in press). Media Use and Political Predispositions: Revisiting the Concept of Selective Exposure. Political Behavior.
  • Sunstein, C. R. (2001). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.