Necessity in Self-Defense and War
I conducted research for this article at Nuffield College and the Institute for Ethics, Law, and Armed Conflict at the University of Oxford, the Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and at the Centre for Moral, Social, and Political Theory, in the School of Philosophy at the Australian National University. My sincere thanks to each of these institutions. I presented some of this work in Jerusalem at the IAS, and at the ANU Thursday Seminar. Along the way I have discussed necessity with many people, whose help has been invaluable. Yitzhak Benbaji, Tom Dougherty, and David Luban were particularly important in helping shape my views. I also learned a great deal about necessity from Christian Barry, Stephanie Collins, Janina Dill, David Enoch, Bob Goodin, Al Hájek, Holly Lawford-Smith, Philip Pettit, Iddo Porat, Daniel Schwartz, Henry Shue, Nic Southwood, Danny Statman, and Michael Walzer. The editor and reviewers for Philosophy & Public Affairs were instrumental in improving the article, especially Section IV.B; again, thanks.