• geographic variation;
  • Pemphigus;
  • spatial autocorrelation;
  • population structure -character covariation – multiple discriminant functions

The geographic variation of 33 morphological characters of the gall-forming aphid Pemphigus populicaulis is studied for 118 localities east of 100oW longitude. Variation can be partitioned into within-gall, among-gall and among-locality components. Among localities variation ranges from 26 to 54%, being significant for all characters. Variation among galls within localities ranges from 24 to. 56%, that within-galls from 8 to 4796. The design of the study permits computation of character correlation matrices within and among localities. Gall size is correlated with tnorphometric characters only on an interlocality but not on an intralocality basis. Interlocalily correlations are a function of intralocality correlations, confirming earlier predictions. There is little correlation between characters of stem mother and alate morphotypes within localities, whereas among localities such correlation is appreciable. This phenomenon may be caused by aspects ol the environment that vary among localities but remain reasonably constant through the earlv life cycle of the aphid.

When subjected to factor analysis both correlation matrices yield four factors. Multiple discriminant analysis of the data set results in five interpretable significant axes. Maps are furnished for characters representing the independent dimensions of variation and for discriminant function scores. The patterns of variation can be shown to be significantly nonrandom by Mantel's test and by spatial autocorrelation analysis. All variables are significantly positively autocorrelated at 200 km, many at 400 km and a few at 600 km; few general statements can be made about significant autocorrelations at higher distances. The positive autocorrelation at relatively short distances may be related to the pool of clones from which the genotypes of any one locality sample are taken. There are three correlogram patterns that can be associated with four clusters of variation patterns of characters. The separate patterns presumably cannot be explained by a single microevolutionary process.