Geographic variation in Pemphigus populitransversus (Insecta: Aphididae)

Authors


  • *Contribution No. 266 from the Graduate Program in Ecology and Evolution at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.

  • †Part 12 of a study of variation in the aphid genus Pemphigus. References to parts 1–10 can be found in Sokal, Bird & Riska (19S0). Part 11 is Bird, Riska & Sokal (1981).

Abstract

The geographic variation of 33 morphological characters of two morphs of the gall-forming aphid Pemphigus populitransversus is studied in 214 locality samples. Among-locality variation ranges from 1 to 69% in the elongate morph and from 0 to 44% in the globular morph. The design of the study permits separation of interlocality correlations from intralocality correlations. The former are partly a function of the latter, confirming early observations on another Pemphigus species and on ticks. Factor analyses of both correlation matrices for both morphs yield four factors. Within localities these factors agree for the two morphs; among localities only one factor corresponds. Multiple discriminant analyses among localities of the two data sets do not correspond. There is little correlation between characters of stem mother and alate morphotypes within localities but such correlations are strong among localities. Maps are furnished for characters representing the independent dimensions of variation for each morph. Patterns of variation are shown to be significant by spatial autocorrelation analysis for both morphs but are much more marked in the elongate morph. Significant positive autocorrelation occurs up to 1000 km in the elongate morph – mostly only up to 200 km in the globular morph. There are two to three geographic variation patterns in the elongate morph, whereas in the globular morph the classes of patterns are less well defined and involve few characters. The environmental factors to which the globular and elongate morphs are adapting would appear to have different autocorrelation patterns. In each morph the patterns are clearly different and cannot be explained by a single microevolutionary process. The findings are compared with an earlier study in the related and largely sympatric P. populicaulis.

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