Hostplants and classification: a review of nymphalid butterflies



In reviewing the hostplant associations of nymphalid butterflies, particular emphasis is placed on the intractable problem of nymphalid classification. Although offering few certain conclusions, if used in conjunction with more formal morphological characters, the data presented should contribute toward a resolution of the inter-relationships of the many widely recognized groupings within the Nymphalidae, several of which seem to be broadly characterized by typical host families. As a direct result of this analysis, the presumed association between larval hostplants and unpalatability is re-appraised.