• Andromonoecy;
  • floral display;
  • reproductive functions;
  • resource allocation;
  • sexual strategies

The conditions for the evolution of andromonoecy and male-function-controlled overproduction of fertile flowers in hermaphrodites are considered using the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) approach. Andromonoecy and male-function-controlled floral display are promoted if further increase in pollen amount per flower is disadvantageous and/or increase in the number of polliniferous units is advantageous; the costs of attractive organs and pollen per flower are relatively low while the cost of ovules per flower and the cost per fruit are relatively high; the probability of setting a fruit from a pistillate flower is high; male fertility increases with the resources devoted to flowering; and if selfing is relatively low. Assumptions and predictions of the model are discussed.