*Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A.
Evolution of Euphilotes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) by seasonal and host shifts
Article first published online: 14 JAN 2008
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
Volume 51, Issue 4, pages 387–416, April 1994
How to Cite
PRATT, G. F. (1994), Evolution of Euphilotes (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) by seasonal and host shifts. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 51: 387–416. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1994.tb00970.x
- Issue published online: 14 JAN 2008
- Article first published online: 14 JAN 2008
- Received 7 July 1992, accepted for publication 30 March 1993
- host shift;
- sequential evolution;
- sympatric speciation
The lycaenid butterfly genus Euphilotes, consisting of five species and several dozen subspecies, is confined to western North America. Each subspecies utilizes one or a few species of Eriogonum (Polygonaceae) as larval hosts; larvae feed entirely on pollen and developing seeds. Euphilotes populations are (with few exceptions) univoltine and fly in synchrony with the initial (c. 2 weeks) annual flowering periods of their hosts. Euphilotes evolution coincides with shifts to new hosts, frequently with different bloom periods. Often both inter- and intraspecific populations occur in sympatry. Although interspecific populations may fly in synchrony and utilize the same hosts, sympatric intraspecific populations use different hosts and generally fly allochronically. Analyses of Euphilotes populations using biochemical, morphological, and life history characters, do not support either coevolution or sequential evolution with Eriogonum but are more consistent with opportunistic adaptation to new hosts having different bloom periods.