The relative importance of genetic, environmental, and maternal effects as determinants of geographical variation in vertebrate life-histories has not often been explored. We examined the role of genetic and maternal effects as determinants of population divergence in survival and three important larval life-history traits (growth rate, age, and size at metamorphosis) using reciprocal crosses between two latitudinally separated populations of the common frog (Rana temporaria Linnaeus). Genetic effects were important in all three traits as indicated by the significant effect of male origin, but there was also evidence for nonadditive genetic contributions on metamorphic size and growth rate. Likewise, maternal effect contributions to population divergence were large, partially environment dependent, and apparently acting primarily through egg size in two of three traits. These results suggest that both genetic and maternal effects are important determinants of geographical variation in amphibian life-histories, and that much of the differentiation resulting from maternal effects is mediated through variation in egg size. © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 76, 61–70.