We studied mtDNA introgression across the contact zone between Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in two independent transects in the Czech Republic and Bavaria, Germany. A total of 1270 mice from 98 localities in the Czech transect and 456 mice from 41 localities in the Bavarian transect were examined for presence or absence of a BamHI restriction site in the mt-Nd1 gene. Using this simple mtDNA marker, variants that belonged to the M. m. domesticus lineage (presence of restriction site) could be unequivocally distinguished from those belonging to the M. m. musculus lineage (absence of restriction site). The extent of introgression of mtDNA, three autosomal allozymes and the X chromosome was compared. The introgression of X markers was more limited than was that of the allozymes and mtDNA. In the Czech transect, the centre for the mtDNA cline was shifted about 3.6 km to the west relative to the X chromosome cline, with asymmetric introgression from M. m. musculus to M. m. domesticus. Interestingly, in the Bavarian transect, the centre of the mtDNA cline was shifted about 10.9 km to the east relative to the X chromosome cline, with asymmetric introgression from M. m. domesticus to M. m. musculus, opposite in direction to that observed in the Czech transect. © 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 84, 363–378.