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Phylogeography and species limits in the Gymnodactylus darwinii complex (Gekkonidae, Squamata): genetic structure coincides with river systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

Authors

  • KATIA C. M. PELLEGRINO,

    Corresponding author
    1. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Saúde, Universidade Católica de Goiás. Rua 232 no. 128 Setor Universitário, 74.210–000, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
      Departamentos de 2Biologia e 3Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
      4University of Utah School of Medicine, Dean's Office, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, Utah, US 84132–2101
      5CENPAT U9120ACV Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
      6Department of Integrative Biology and M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, US 84602
      E-mail: kpelleg@hotmail.com
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  • 1,2 MIGUEL T. RODRIGUES,

    1. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Saúde, Universidade Católica de Goiás. Rua 232 no. 128 Setor Universitário, 74.210–000, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
      Departamentos de 2Biologia e 3Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
      4University of Utah School of Medicine, Dean's Office, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, Utah, US 84132–2101
      5CENPAT U9120ACV Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
      6Department of Integrative Biology and M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, US 84602
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  • 3 AARON N. WAITE,

    1. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Saúde, Universidade Católica de Goiás. Rua 232 no. 128 Setor Universitário, 74.210–000, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
      Departamentos de 2Biologia e 3Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
      4University of Utah School of Medicine, Dean's Office, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, Utah, US 84132–2101
      5CENPAT U9120ACV Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
      6Department of Integrative Biology and M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, US 84602
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  • 4 MARIANA MORANDO,

    1. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Saúde, Universidade Católica de Goiás. Rua 232 no. 128 Setor Universitário, 74.210–000, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
      Departamentos de 2Biologia e 3Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
      4University of Utah School of Medicine, Dean's Office, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, Utah, US 84132–2101
      5CENPAT U9120ACV Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
      6Department of Integrative Biology and M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, US 84602
    Search for more papers by this author
  • 5 YATIYO Y. YASSUDA,

    1. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Saúde, Universidade Católica de Goiás. Rua 232 no. 128 Setor Universitário, 74.210–000, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
      Departamentos de 2Biologia e 3Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
      4University of Utah School of Medicine, Dean's Office, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, Utah, US 84132–2101
      5CENPAT U9120ACV Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
      6Department of Integrative Biology and M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, US 84602
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  • and 2 JACK W. SITES JR 6

    1. 1 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Ambientais e Saúde, Universidade Católica de Goiás. Rua 232 no. 128 Setor Universitário, 74.210–000, Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil
      Departamentos de 2Biologia e 3Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
      4University of Utah School of Medicine, Dean's Office, 30 North 1900 East, Salt Lake City, Utah, US 84132–2101
      5CENPAT U9120ACV Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
      6Department of Integrative Biology and M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, US 84602
    Search for more papers by this author

E-mail: kpelleg@hotmail.com

Abstract

Phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA cytochrome b were performed in 42 lizards of the Gymnodactylus darwinii complex from three regions within Brazil's Atlantic Forest. Mainland regions and continental shelf islands in the south-eastern range and mainland areas from the north-east were sampled. The criteria of maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods were explored, with the robustness for nodes assessed by bootstrapping (MP and ML) and posterior probabilities (Bayesian searches). By all methods, three distinctive phylogroups were recovered: a south-eastern clade (SE) and two clades from northern regions (NE1 and NE2). The pattern of genetic structure of the major clades coincided with the presence of river systems in the Atlantic Forest, and based on corrected genetic distances between those clades, divergence times were tentatively estimated using mtDNA rates calibrated for squamate reptiles. The putative role of Atlantic Forest rivers in generating differentiation is discussed. We present a hypothesis of species limits for G. darwinii, based on concordant lines of evidence including cytogenetic and mtDNA analyses. Two chromosome races (cytotype A, 2n = 38; and cytotype B, 2n = 40) had distributions concordant with clades SE and NE1 + NE2, respectively. These races are interpreted to be full species on the basis of a number of empirical criteria. © 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 85, 13–26.

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