• colonization;
  • endemism;
  • Hygromiidae;
  • island biogeography;
  • Macaronesia;
  • morphometry;
  • multivariate analyses;
  • radiation;
  • reproductive organs

Morphological data, in combination with molecular data, may provide invaluable insights into speciation processes on archipelagos. Land snails offer ample opportunities to evalutate adaptive and non-adaptive speciation scenarios. However, studies investigating processes of differentiation and speciation on the Azores are scarce. The present study comprises a morphometrical analysis of shell and genital characters in a group of Azorean land snails (Pulmonata, Leptaxinae). Geographical isolation appears to be an important mechanism underlying morphological and molecular differentiation in the Azorean Leptaxini, instead of adaptive radiation through ecological differentiation. Nevertheless, we could not exclude the occurrence of ecological speciation on the oldest island (Santa Maria) where two species that markedly differ in shell-shape co-occur. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 97, 166–176.