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Phylogeography and counter-intuitive inferences in island biogeography: evidence from morphometric markers in the mobile butterfly Maniola jurtina (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

Authors

  • LEONARDO DAPPORTO,

    Corresponding author
    1. Istituto Comprensivo Materna, Elementere Media Convenevole da Prato, via 1° Maggio 40, 59100, Prato, Italy
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  • CLAUDIA BRUSCHINI,

    1. Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze, via Romana 17, 50125, Firenze, Italy
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  • DAVID BARACCHI,

    1. Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze, via Romana 17, 50125, Firenze, Italy
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  • ALESSANDRO CINI,

    1. Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze, via Romana 17, 50125, Firenze, Italy
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  • SEVERIANO F. GAYUBO,

    1. Área de Zoología., Facultad de Biología, Campus ‘Miguel de Unamuno’, Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca,Spain
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  • JOSÉ A. GONZÁLEZ,

    1. Área de Zoología., Facultad de Biología, Campus ‘Miguel de Unamuno’, Universidad de Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca,Spain
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  • ROGER L. H. DENNIS

    1. NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, UK
    2. Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration, Mellor Building, Staffordshire University, College Road, Stoke on Trent ST4 2DE, UK
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E-mail: leondap@gmail.com

Abstract

Distribution of mobile organisms on near-continent islands is mainly shaped by factors operating over ecological rather geological time. However, the phylogeography of single species has the potential to expose historical factors at work. In the present study, West Mediterranean populations of the butterfly Maniola jurtina are studied using geometric morphometrics. The distribution of the two well established lineages (Maniola jurtina jurtina in the Atlanto–Mediterranean area and Maniola jurtina janira in the Central–Eastern-Mediterranean area) on 12 islands and the adjoining continents are compared. The south-western lineage unexpectedly occurs on islands close to shores occupied by the eastern lineage. We have modelled the distribution of the lineages using three different hypotheses: (1) a contemporary isolation model, which predicts lineage occupancy of islands is linked to relative distances from neighbouring continental areas; (2) a refugial hypothesis, which predicts one lineage to be the ancestral one for the whole region studied, and then successively replaced over part of it; (3) a changing geography hypothesis, which predicts the two lineages to have evolved in their currently occupied areas, continuously sourcing islands subsequent to the Würm maximum glaciation. Of the three models, the refugial hypothesis is most highly correlated with the observed pattern, suggesting that Mediterranean islands may function as refugia during cold periods, much as the three mainland peninsulas of Iberia, Italy and Greece are known to have done. Thereafter, hybridization on the nearest and smallest islands has occurred, with the entire process supporting the notion of the joint influence of factors in ecological and geological time. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 98, 677–692.

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