In the present study, we present the full sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African desert locust Schistocerca gregaria gregaria. The size of 15625 bp reported matches very well with mitochondrial genomes of other Orthopteriodea. The mitochondrial genome comprises 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 t-RNAs with two t-RNA (trnD and trnK) rearrangements that are typical for the taxon Caelifera. We compared the sequence with 12 mitochondrial genes of Schistocerca gregaria flaviventris and Schistocerca americana and used some of these data to construct phylogenetic trees, which confirm the close relationship between the two subspecies S. g. flaviventris and S. g. gregaria. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 99, 296–305.