Patterns of diversification in two species of short-tailed bats (Carollia Gray, 1838): the effects of historical fragmentation of Brazilian rainforests

Authors

  • ANA CAROLINA PAVAN,

    1. LEM, Laboratório de Evolução de Mamíferos, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 277, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • FELIPE MARTINS,

    1. Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 321, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • FABRÍCIO R. SANTOS,

    1. LBEM, Laboratório de Biodiversidade e Evolução Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-010 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
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  • ALBERT DITCHFIELD,

    1. LABEQ, Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Avenida Marechal Campos 1468, 29040-090 Vitória, ES, Brazil
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  • RODRIGO A. F. REDONDO

    Corresponding author
    1. LBEM, Laboratório de Biodiversidade e Evolução Molecular, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-010 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
    2. IST-Austria. Institute of Science and Technology, Am Campus 1, A-3400, Klosterneuburg, Austria
      E-mail: redondo@ist.ac.at, redondo@icb.ufmg.br
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E-mail: redondo@ist.ac.at, redondo@icb.ufmg.br

Abstract

The small-sized frugivorous bat Carollia perspicillata is an understory specialist and occurs in a wide range of lowland habitats, tending to be more common in tropical dry or moist forests of South and Central America. Its sister species, Carollia brevicauda, occurs almost exclusively in the Amazon rainforest. A recent phylogeographic study proposed a hypothesis of origin and subsequent diversification for C. perspicillata along the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil. Additionally, it also found two allopatric clades for C. brevicauda separated by the Amazon Basin. We used cytochrome b gene sequences and a more extensive sampling to test hypotheses related to the origin and diversification of C. perspicillata plus C. brevicauda clade in South America. The results obtained indicate that there are two sympatric evolutionary lineages within each species. In C. perspicillata, one lineage is limited to the Southern Atlantic Forest, whereas the other is widely distributed. Coalescent analysis points to a simultaneous origin for C. perspicillata and C. brevicauda, although no place for the diversification of each species can be firmly suggested. The phylogeographic pattern shown by C. perspicillata is also congruent with the Pleistocene refugia hypothesis as a likely vicariant phenomenon shaping the present distribution of its intraspecific lineages. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 102, 527–539.

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