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Figure S1. Phylogeny of the Hyaenidae at the genus level, modified from Werdelin & Solounias (1991). Ecomorphology groups of Werdelin & Solounias (1996) are numbered: (1) generalized civet-like arboreal insectivore/omnivores; (2) mongoose-like terrestrial insectivore/omnivores; (3) jackal/wolf-like semi-cursorial meat and bone eaters; (4) cursorial meat and bone eaters; (5) transitional bone-crackers; (6) full bone-crackers. Species names are included for monospecific genera only.

Figure S2. Masticatory muscles of Panthera pardus and muscle attachment sites for modelling of muscle forces. A, lateral view of skull with temporalis and masseter muscles in place. B, lateral view of skull showing muscle attachment sites. C, lateral view of skull with zygomatic arch cut away, showing the location of the medial pterygoid muscle. D, ventral view of skull showing locations of the three major jaw-closing muscles. ap, angular process; d, dentary; m, masseter muscle; mc, cranial attachment site of masseter; md, dentary attachment site of masseter; ms, mandibular symphysis; mx, maxilla; n, nasal; oc, occipital condyle; pmx, premaxilla; pof, postorbital process of the frontal bone; pt, medial pterygoid muscle; ptd, dentary attachment site of pterygoid; RC1, right canine; RP3, right premolar 3; RP4, right premolar 4 (carnassial); t, temporalis muscle; tc, cranial attachment site of temporalis; td, dentary attachment site of temporalis; tmj, temporomandibular joint.

Figure S3. Distribution of von Mises stress in the mandible in simulation of ‘lateral shake’ of scenario 3 (A–D) and ‘lateral shake’ of scenario 1 (E–H). (A, E) Crocuta crocuta; (B, F) Ikelohyaena abronia; (C, G) Lycaon pictus; (D, H) Panthera pardus. Hotter colours indicate higher stress; white represents stress beyond the range of the scale. Note the different scale and substantially higher stresses in scenario 1 results.

Table S1. Properties of finite element models constructed in the present study.

Table S2. Masticatory muscle ratios in the species examined.

Table S3. Sensitivity test of mandibular symphysis material properties.

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