An ecogeographic survey is required for the development of a strategy for the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. An herbarium-based ecogeographic survey is presented, supplemented by detailed field surveys of wild Coffea species in the Mascarene Islands. The geographical and ecological distribution of the different Coffea species in the Mascarene Islands, principally in Mauritius, is determined, and an assessment is made of the IUCN conservation status of native Coffea species. Ecogeographic data were collated from herbarium specimens from four major herbaria holding collections of Mascarene Coffea. The geography, ecology, phenology and conservation status of the Coffea species from Mauritius are discussed.