• Aristolochia;
  • Asarum;
  • embryology;
  • magnoliids;
  • Piperales;
  • pollen;
  • Sarumatetrads;
  • Thottea

Within Aristolochiaceae, a secretory tapetum and orbicules are ubiquitous, but both simultaneous and successive types of microsporogenesis occur. Simultaneous cytokinesis is apparently plesiomorphic within the order Piperales, in which Aristolochiaceae are now placed. Successive microsporogenesis was found only in species of Aristolochia confined to a crown clade in the proposed phylogeny of this genus. In contrast to many other taxa, within Aristolochiaceae there is no strict relationship between microsporogenesis type and tetrad configuration, which is strongly influenced by spindle orientation, especially during meiosis II. There is also no direct correlation between microsporogenesis type and the aperture of mature pollen grains.