The phylogenetic relationships, morphology, and distribution of the enigmatic species Andrachne cuneifolia of problematic generic affiliation were examined. Nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid matK sequences were analysed with a matrix of matK and ITS DNA sequences for Phyllanthus and Andrachne species. According to this analysis, this taxon belongs in the genus Phyllanthus, subgenus Xylophylla. Comparison of morphological characters also supports the placement of this species in Phyllanthus subgenus Xylophylla. The correct name is Phyllanthus cuneifolius (Britton) Croizat. A full description, illustration, conservation rating, and distribution map are provided. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 155, 519–525.