Aeschynomene sabulicola L.P. Queiroz & D. Cardoso is proposed as a new species of the section Ochopodium. This new species seems to be related to the series Viscidulae, as it presents herbaceous, slender branches, densely covered by viscid glandular hairs. However, it possesses fruits much larger than expected for this series. Aeschynomene sabulicola can be diagnosed by the erect habit, reaching c. 3.5 m high, inflorescences divaricate and horizontal with remote flowers, and fruits with only one subreniform article, this measuring 13–14 × 7–8 mm. The species occurs only in a continental sand dune area along the middle São Francisco River basin in the State of Bahia, north-eastern Brazil. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 157, 749–753.