A new species of Centaurea, Centaurea sicana, endemic to Sicily, is described. This new taxon is close to Centaurea parlatoris and Centaurea giardinae (Sect. Dissectae), the former occurring at Palermo and in the Madonie Mountains, while the latter occurs on the Etna volcano. The new species has so far been found only on the Sicani Mountains, a limestone mountain range in western Sicily, while the related species occur in the surrounding mountains. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 157, 785–788.