A new species of Astragalus L., A. trabzonicus (section Onobrychoidei DC.), is described and illustrated from north-east Anatolia in Turkey. The diagnostic, pollen morphological, and chromosomal characteristics are discussed. A distribution map and conservation status are given. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 157, 741–747.