Dianthus aytachii C.Vural from Mount Erciyes, central Anatolia (Turkey) is described and illustrated. It is considered to be endemic to Mount Erciyes. The morphological differences from the closely related species Dianthus zederbaueri Vierh. are discussed. The World Conservation Union (IUCN) threat category and observations on the ecology of the populations are noted. The pollen and seed morphology of D. aytachii and D. zederbaueri were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The geographical distribution of the new species is mapped. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 158, 55–61.