Based on examinations of specimens of Elatostema and Pellionia housed at K, KUN, L, P, PE, and YUNU, Elatostema section Weddelia series Salvinioida is taxonomically revised. Two species are recognized, described, and illustrated, and a key to the species is provided. Elatostema salvinioides var. robustum W.T.Wang is treated as a synonym of E. salvinioides W.T.Wang. Pellionia imbricata Gagnepain is transferred to Elatostema and a lectotype is designated herein. A new name, Elatostema simplicissimum Q. Lin, is provided because Elatostema imbricans was previously occupied. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 158, 62–66.