An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III

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  • THE ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP

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    1. Recommended citation: APG III (2009). This paper was compiled by Birgitta Bremer, Kåre Bremer, Mark W. Chase, Michael F. Fay, James L. Reveal, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis and Peter F. Stevens, who were equally responsible and listed here in alphabetical order only, with contributions from Arne A. Anderberg, Michael J. Moore, Richard G. Olmstead, Paula J. Rudall, Kenneth J. Sytsma, David C. Tank, Kenneth Wurdack, Jenny Q.-Y. Xiang and Sue Zmarzty (in alphabetical order). Addresses: B. Bremer, The Bergius Foundation at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 50017, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden; K. Bremer, Vice Chancellor, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; M. W. Chase, M. F. Fay, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, UK; J. L. Reveal, L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Department of Plant Biology, 412 Mann Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-4301, USA; D. E. Soltis, Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611–8525, USA; P. S. Soltis, Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611–7800, USA; and P. F. Stevens, Department of Biology, University of Missouri-St. Louis and Missouri Botanical Garden, PO Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166–0299, USA
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*Mark W. Chase. E-mail: m.chase@kew.org

Abstract

A revised and updated classification for the families of flowering plants is provided. Many recent studies have yielded increasingly detailed evidence for the positions of formerly unplaced families, resulting in a number of newly adopted orders, including Amborellales, Berberidopsidales, Bruniales, Buxales, Chloranthales, Escalloniales, Huerteales, Nymphaeales, Paracryphiales, Petrosaviales, Picramniales, Trochodendrales, Vitales and Zygophyllales. A number of previously unplaced genera and families are included here in orders, greatly reducing the number of unplaced taxa; these include Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales), Haptanthaceae (Buxales), Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Huaceae (Oxalidales), Centroplacaceae and Rafflesiaceae (both Malpighiales), Aphloiaceae, Geissolomataceae and Strasburgeriaceae (all Crossosomatales), Picramniaceae (Picramniales), Dipentodontaceae and Gerrardinaceae (both Huerteales), Cytinaceae (Malvales), Balanophoraceae (Santalales), Mitrastemonaceae (Ericales) and Boraginaceae (now at least known to be a member of lamiid clade). Newly segregated families for genera previously understood to be in other APG-recognized families include Petermanniaceae (Liliales), Calophyllaceae (Malpighiales), Capparaceae and Cleomaceae (both Brassicales), Schoepfiaceae (Santalales), Anacampserotaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae (all Caryophyllales) and Linderniaceae and Thomandersiaceae (both Lamiales). Use of bracketed families is abandoned because of its unpopularity, and in most cases the broader circumscriptions are retained; these include Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceace and Xanthorrheaceae (all Asparagales), Passifloraceae (Malpighiales), Primulaceae (Ericales) and several other smaller families. Separate papers in this same volume deal with a new linear order for APG, subfamilial names that can be used for more accurate communication in Amaryllidaceae s.l., Asparagaceace s.l. and Xanthorrheaceae s.l. (all Asparagales) and a formal supraordinal classification for the flowering plants. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 161, 105–121.

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