An extended molecular phylogenetic analysis of Uvaria (Annonaceae) is presented, using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, based on sequences of four plastid DNA regions (matK, psbA-trnH spacer, rbcL and trnL-F). The additional taxa include the monotypic West African genus Balonga, the monotypic South-East Asian genus Dasoclema and seven Australian representatives of the genus Melodorum. The results indicate that all of these taxa are nested within a well-supported clade otherwise consisting of Uvaria species, indicating that their taxonomic treatment needs to be reassessed. The distinguishing morphological characteristics of the taxa are re-evaluated and interpreted as specialized adaptations of the basic Uvaria structure. The genus Uvaria is accordingly extended following the transfer of these species, necessitating six new nomenclatural combinations and two replacement names. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 163, 33–43.