Revision of the Neotropical fern genus Danaea (Marattiaceae) has resulted in the recognition of ten new species, which are here for the first time presented to the scientific audience. Morphological and molecular data suggest that the genus consists of three monophyletic subgenera that are circumscribed here. A key is provided to aid species identification. The geographical ranges of the species are summarized and discussed with regard to speciation. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 163, 360–385.