Bulbophyllum nocturnum, a species of section Epicrianthes from New Britain, is described and illustrated. It is the first known example of an orchid species in which the flowers open after dark and close in the morning. The poorly understood pollination biology of section Epicrianthes, a clade with highly unusual flowers, is discussed. Attention is drawn to the close resemblance between the petal appendages of some species and the fruiting bodies of certain Myxogastria. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2011, 167, 344–350.