The effect of ammonia exposure on gill structure of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)


  • Geoffrey Smart

    1. Research Unit for Comparative Animal Respiration, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol
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      Shearwater Fish Farming Limited, Low Plains, Armathwaite, Carlisle, Cumbria.


Gill structure has been studied in fish exposed to various ammonia concentrations. Gill damage resulting from exposure to acutely lethal concentrations was relatively minor and unlikely to have been a primary cause of death. Alternative toxic mechanisms have been discussed. Following long-term exposure to ammonia there were severe histopathological changes in gill structure and oxygen uptake may have been seriously impaired. A high incidence of disease was also observed.