Shearwater Fish Farming Limited, Low Plains, Armathwaite, Carlisle, Cumbria.
The effect of ammonia exposure on gill structure of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)
Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006
Journal of Fish Biology
Volume 8, Issue 6, pages 471–475, June 1976
How to Cite
Smart, G. (1976), The effect of ammonia exposure on gill structure of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of Fish Biology, 8: 471–475. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1976.tb03990.x
- Issue published online: 24 JAN 2006
- Article first published online: 24 JAN 2006
- (Accepted 26 March 1975)
Gill structure has been studied in fish exposed to various ammonia concentrations. Gill damage resulting from exposure to acutely lethal concentrations was relatively minor and unlikely to have been a primary cause of death. Alternative toxic mechanisms have been discussed. Following long-term exposure to ammonia there were severe histopathological changes in gill structure and oxygen uptake may have been seriously impaired. A high incidence of disease was also observed.