The colonization by both resident and migrating spawner populations of brown trout and the characteristics of resident and migrating juveniles derived from the two populations have been studied in a brook and its tributary over 4 years. Resident trout spawns mainly in the upstream part of the brook and migrating trout in the downstream part. There are density and growth variations for the two age classes (0+ and 1 +) of juveniles in autumn according to the year and the environment. In the brook, the population of 0 + fish increases from downstream to upstream while the density of other age classes decreases. The migrating juvenile population of the brook changes annually and consists mainly of 1 s (one summer) individuals coming from the upper part. These individuals migrate generally in autumn and winter while young trout produced in the middle and downstream parts of the brook migrate mainly in the spring. The emigration process of the 0 + population decreases markedly from upstream to downstream and appears to be independent of the autumn length and sex ratio. In the tributary, most trout are 0+ years old, the population structure is different, and no migrating fish is observed. The results are discussed and a colonization strategy of the brown trout population in this brook is suggested.