Sexual dimorphism in the energetics of reproduction and growth of North Sea plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L.

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Abstract

The chemical composition and energy content of North Sea plaice during the spawning period were examined in mature males and females and in immature fish, to study differences in the allocation of energy over reproduction and somatic growth between the sexes.

At the beginning of the spawning period mature males and females had equal dry weights of lipid that were 70% higher than in immatures. Protein content in mature males was equal to that in immatures but was 23 % higher in mature females. Immature males and females did not differ in chemical composition. At the end of the spawning period, spent and immature fish had equal lipid contents, but protein content in spent females was 10% lower than in spent males, and 17% lower than in immatures. Gross energy content of the body decreased by 44% (65·2 to 36·3 J cm-3) in mature females, 27% (55·0 to 40·OJ cm-3) in mature males, and 9% (48·7 to 44·2J cm-3) in immatures. Energy content of plaice eggs was estimated at 6·60 kJ per 1000 eggs.

Reproductive investment was estimated from the energy loss during the spawning period and included the energy of sex products and spawning metabolism. Somatic growth comprised the annual increase in energy content of fish. The pattern of energy allocation over reproduction and somatic growth differed between males and females. Males started their reproduction at a smaller length and a younger age and allocated a higher proportion of the available energy into reproduction than females. Available energy resources for somatic growth and reproduction (surplus production) were equal between the sexes up to a length of about 30 cm. Beyond this length male surplus production levelled off whereas female surplus production continued to increase. The differences in surplus production and the allocation patterns are discussed.

For female plaice the energy allocated into egg production was estimated as between 48 and 64% of the total amount of energy lost during spawning. The remaining energy is used for metabolism during the spawning period, yielding an estimate of the metabolic rate of mature females of between 6·4 and 9·1 kJ day-1. A maximum estimate of the metabolic rate of mature males was 7·4 kJ day-1.

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