Mount Allison University, Department of Biology, Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada E0A 3C0.
Positioning behaviour in fish shoals: a cost–benefit analysis
Article first published online: 4 APR 2005
Journal of Fish Biology
Volume 43, Issue Supplement sA, pages 309–314, December 1993
How to Cite
Krause, J. (1993), Positioning behaviour in fish shoals: a cost–benefit analysis. Journal of Fish Biology, 43: 309–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1993.tb01194.x
- Issue published online: 4 APR 2005
- Article first published online: 4 APR 2005
- Positioning behaviour;
- feeding rates;
- predation risk;
- shoaling behaviour
Shoal position can have a strong influence on individual fitness. Individuals in front positions of shoals were observed to have higher feeding rates than individuals elsewhere. Manipulation of nutritional state showed that hungry individuals had a stronger preference for front positions and that the duration of food-deprivation was positively correlated with the degree of the position preference. On the other hand, front positions (like other peripheral positions) probably incur costs in terms of increased predation risks. Experiments with Schreckstoff showed that frightened individuals seek the central part of the shoal. This suggests that individuals rotate their shoal positions according to the tradeoff between energy intake and predation risk.